Nadira Begum’s tomb – faded glory of Lahore

Saad Sarfraz Shiekh’s excellent article and photos

The tomb of Nadira Begum...

The tomb of Nadira Begum…

Finding Nadira Begum’s Tomb isn’t hard since its right next to Sufi Saint Hazrat Mian Mir’s shrine.

Nadira Saleem Banu was the wife of Mughal Prince Dara Shikoh, the ill-fated heir to Shah Jahan’s throne and the crown prince of his Indian empire.

She died in 1659, several months before Dara Shikoh execution, and was survived by two daughters. No sons survived thanks to Aurangzeb Alamgir, who got rid of all male threats.

Stories of Nadira Banu’s beauty and intelligence were famous throughout the empire. She was the daughter of Shah Jahan’s half-brother, Prince Perwez, and therefore Dara Shikoh’s cousin.

Her would-be husband Dara Shikoh was eager to marry her and had a good relationship with her throughout his turbulent life. He never remarried, in spite of the common Mughal practice of persistent polygamy and overflowing harems. Shah Jahan’s wife Mumtaz Mahal, Dara’s mother, arranged the marriage when both Dara and Nadira were teenagers.

Dara Shikoh’s sister Jahanara Begum got along with Nadira quite well, as reflected by her involvement and interest in Nadira’s wedding and her closeness to him.

With the death of Mumtaz Mahal, arrangements for the wedding died as Shah Jahan and his India plunged into mourning. After much coaxing by many, especially Jahanara, Shah Jahan resumed life and let her oversee the remaining aspects of the wedding. Jahanara had always visibly supported Dara over Aurengzeb and never hesitated in demonstrating that. Jahanara’s love for Dara strengthened her relationship with Nadira and after her death she left her fortune to one of Nadira’s daughters. Aurengzeb once openly asked Jahanara if she would support him in his bid for the crown but she refused. Despite this event and her undying loyalty to Dara, she was made the head of the harem in Aurengzeb’s court.

Aurangzeb, driven by his ambition and fanatical views, seized the throne and eventually defeated his moderate and secular brother Dara Shikoh, who was said to be tolerant, wise and admired. Two major wars were waged between them, Dara lost both. In 1659 he lost another war with fate while escaping to Dadhar (Balochistan) en route to Iran, when his wife Nadira Begam died of exhaustion and dysentery. Sunk in despair, Darà Shikoh dispatched his remaining soldiers to escort his beloved wife’s dead body to Lahore. In accordance with her wish to be buried in Hindustan, he instructed that she should be laid to rest near the shrine of his spiritual guide Hazrat Mian Mir. Dara was later arrested near the Bolan Pass by the forces of Aurangzeb Alamgir, he was taken to Delhi and executed.

It is interesting to note that moderates and extremists have always clashed in history. While Aurangzeb despised arts and had no love for mankind, his brother Dara was said to be a fine painter and poet.

Many of his works were collected and gifted to Nadira Begum in 1641. It was her affection for him that she cherished them until her death. Titled the ‘Dara Shikoh Album’, it was a collection of paintings and calligraphy assembled from the 1630s until his death.

After her death the album was taken into the royal library and the inscriptions connecting it with Dara Shikoh were deliberately erased; however not everything was vandalised and many calligraphy, scripts and paintings still bear his mark. Some of the surviving works were recently on display at a British museum.

Columnist Khalid Ahmed writes, “The tomb of Nadira Begum, the wife of Dara Shikoh is still popular with visitors as is the shrine of Mian Mir, the Muslim saint who laid the foundation of the Golden Temple in Amritsar. Mian Mir is immortalised by Dara’s book on him. Another Nadira Begum was the courtesan Anarkali, whom Akbar presumably killed for seducing his son.”

Unlike other Mughal tombs which have normally been constructed in the midst of gardens, Nadira Begum’s tomb is built amidst a water tank without a dome, which bears the flat parapet on all its four sides. In fact, these distinguished architectural features have made it look rather like a pavilion than a tomb. The tomb stands on a raised platform in the centre of a water tank, which was large enough to accomadate a lake. Encroachments have eaten away most of the tomb’s area during the course of history. During the British period, the tank was dismantled by a local contractor Mian Muhammad Sultan and its bricks were recycled in building the Lahore Cantonment. According to historians, the corners of the tank were marked with pavilions, while the lofty gateways provided access to the tomb from the north and south through a masonry bridge. The gateways no longer exist but most of the causeways can still be seen. The culverted bridge still stands on thirty arches. The 14′ wide central chamber is surrounded by an ambulatory in the form of vestibules. It greatly resembles the tank and baradari at Hiran Minar in Sheikhupura. A plinth ten-feet high from the surface of the tank, comprises the foundations of the tomb. Square on plan, the tomb on each side measures 44′ feet. It used to be a two storeyed structure and now has a height of 32′-6″from the grave platform. The height of the first storey is 13′ flanked by square headed apertures. The pavilion is constructed of burnt bricks and contains deep cusped arched openings. The central openings are arched, while those on the sides are flat. There are four arched openings on the ground floor in the interior around the grave and above them arches, exactly of the same type, are built in the upper storey. All these arched openings in both the storeys are cusped in design. Each of the openings in the lower storey is three feet four inches wide and six feet six inches high and that in the upper storey is three feet three inches wide and six feet high. An interesting feature of the openings is that all the eight corners of lower and upper storeys were executed skilfully by forming a small pavilion in each of the corners. All the four facades of the pavilion are decorated with blind cusped arches and panels. They contain projection over which rises the high parapet wall. The stairs for reaching the upper-storey and roof arc located at the south-east and north-east corners. The whole structure of the pavilion was lime plastered. As seen from the main elements forming the design of the pavilion, its structure was not a complex one. Its proportions also are as simple as its shape. The grave, which lies in the centre of the pavilion, is 6′ -10″ long, 2′-10″ wide and 1′-8″ high. There were small arched holes on the northern end of the grave on a raised portion for lighting up the area with oil lamps.

On the northern face of the grave Quranic verses are laid in marble slab in the pielra-dura technique in Naslaliq character, while on the southern end, Nadira Begum’s name and her date of demise is inscribed in the marble slab in the same design.

The façade at the top retains parapet. On the parapet wall, just on the roof level are four small arched openings, two each in the north and the south, which, if seen from outside appear that. Below the parapet, in the façade is a balcony in red sandstone. The roof built in vaulting is flat at the top except for a fascinating hexagonal platform of two feet height that is located in its centre. The roof and the platform are covered with thick lime plaster and lack any ornamentation. The tank around the pavilion, which was enclosed by a high wall, has been filled with earth and traces of its four walls are still visible. It was a very spacious tank square in shape, with each side being 580 feet long. There were fine gateways to the north and south. When there was water in the tank, the tomb seemed to be floating in water, its reflections creating the illusion of movement. Though isolated in this manner, its connection with the rest of the world is maintained by means of a causeway access in the east-west direction. The causeway bears 32 pointed arched openings and in addition to that there is one more opening in the centre of the causeway which was intentionally closed. That closed opening forms a beautiful square platform in the centre of the causeway, its each side being eleven feet and nine inches long. The causeway, which is in a deteriorating condition, is five feet and nine inches wide. The tank has now been developed in pretty lawns, bearing pathways. Numerous evergreen trees have also been planted in it and flowerbeds have also been prepared for seasonal flowers. This new arrangement has converted the area of the spacious tank into a beautiful park, an attractive spot for the inhabitants of the locality. But it has also made it into a sports ground where the causeways seem ideal for a cricket pitch!

In the interior of both the storeys, the ceilings and faces of the walls are decorated with the traditional Mughal architectural feature of Ghalib Kari, panels of various geometrical shapes, which bear traces of red, green and black colours. The use of Ghalib Kari ormuqarnas (stalactite squiches) for roofs and vaults are also employed internally. Though now faded, the traces are still beautiful. The colour scheme appears to be carried over the whole of its interior surface except for the trench of the upper storey which was brilliantly embellished with glazed tiles of multi-colours, traces of which are still evident. Although no tile-work is extant on the external façade, but traces of glazed tiles arc still evident in first floor interiors. Most of the tiles removed from the tomb are preserved now in the Lahore Museum.

In its early days, the tomb was an inspired achievement, the variety and distribution of its tonal value, the simplicity and scale of each clement and finally the carefully adjusted mass of the total conception showed the calibre of the Mughal architects at their best.

But today the tomb retains a simple and blank facade, shorn of all ornamentation. It is said to have been robbed of its costly marble and semi-precious stones during the Sikh period. It is very sad to note that like other Mughal monuments of Lahore, the beautiful tomb pavilion of Nadira Begum and its attached structures could not escape the vandalism of the Sikhs. During Ranjit Singh’s rule, the choicest material from the structure was removed, leaving it in a dilapidated condition. The tomb is also a victim of contemporary vandalism, as gaudy graffiti is visible on the structure with the ugly plague of wall chalking.

Since independence, its proper conservation has been ignored. The tomb was declared as a protected monument in 1956 and since then its responsibility for conservation lies with the Department of Archaeology and Museum.

In 1956, a comprehensive scheme was framed by the department for its repair and restoration. It seems nothing has happened since 1956.

Nadira Begum remains a silent spectator, watching cricket and soccer balls often being hit into her tomb.

She lies there in silent royalty, listening to the ghosts of the past talk about the faded glory of the Mughal Empire, which was at that time the richest empire in the world.

: View my Flickr Set on Nadira Begum’s Tomb at : http://www.flickr.com/photos/saadsarfraz/sets/72157622278655989/
An animated slideshow at: http://www.flickr.com/photos/saadsarfraz/sets/72157622278655989/show/

About these ads

14 responses to “Nadira Begum’s tomb – faded glory of Lahore

  1. Excellent post. Very well written, Saad, and beautiful photographs. Well done!!!

  2. I am so impressed by reading the whole story and detailed explanation of the Tomb.
    Marvellous.

  3. it is a very good article aned a recollection of past history.

  4. this is very beautiful, indeed. as all of us Pakistanis often lament about what a pity it is that we dont have the resources (perhaps not the motivation, either) to maintain our monuments. having spent a chunk of years in Rome, i was amazed (and in awe) at how the italians protected even a mere water fountain on a remote street, if it had some historical significance. there are some excellent individuals out there in Pakistan who do try preserve our historical sites and monuments, but those individuals are few and far between. gorgeous photography and really interesting write-up. best wishes, shayma

  5. And what a lovely photograph!

  6. I was born and brought in the neighbourhood of nadira begum,s grave. Though I daily see the tomb but I just realised that its been long time since I have actually visited this. I will go there rightaway smoke a cigrette and think about a lady (may her soul rest in eternal peace)who was ones the princess of the richest and most powerful family on the face of the earth . wow. Ye zameen kha gaie aasmaan kasay kasay ….

  7. Saad Sarfraz Shiekh – Who Are You? You’re amazing! I hope you continue documenting and writing on Pakistan’s cultural gems! WELL DONE!

  8. Hello,
    I’m glad to see my work being featured here. Thank you for the amazing comments :-)
    Regards,
    Saad Sarfraz Sheikh

  9. iles can be cold feet and can be slippery when wet so it does not when parents or children to participate.
    Wood floors are also classified as a hard floor, but are much more sensitive than those tiles are warmer underfoot. With many natural colors available, can help create a feeling of warmth and simple, but they can be noisy as popping can also help reduce noise and add bounce to the ground.

  10. Naveed Chughtai

    it isnt that beautiful as has been shown in the pictures… i visit it everyday since ive been born and brought up at its neighborhood, the tank that was mentioned in the story is a big play ground now and in time of mere 10 years ive seen its parks being disppeared and turned into residential area.
    .. i just hope we ourselves start to give more importance to our histories and architecture

  11. Nice research work. I wish if the encroachments be removed and the gardens be renovated again.
    A great monument shouldnt be neglected like that.
    Naveed
    03008448441

  12. please refrain from false accusations at the emperor aurangzeb alamgir. historical facts state that dara shikoh was planning on reintroducing his grandfather akbars din e elahi back into india. Aurangzeb moved fast to make sure that he did not become emperor as he may have corrupted more muslims with a renewal of his grandfathers kufr beliefs of din e elahi. Aurangzeb was a hero and the greatest ruler in indias history.

    • @Zidane, Din-e-Elahi was just a another name for the idea that various beliefs can co-exist without trying to wipe each other out–just like the Quran says “to you your beliefs to me mine”.
      Aurengzeb’s policy, on the other hand, of no concessions to the Hindu majority and the fundamentalist fervor with which he carried out his military campaigns proved disasterous for the Mughal empire and in the end led to unending death and destruction for the Muslims of the subcontinent

  13. I want to suggest that both the idea of Aurangzeb as a zealot and that of Dara Shikoh as some sort of secular visionary are largely the production of 19th century historical revisionism. Both Aurangzeb and Dara Shikoh were devotees of Sufis, both were also pious Muslims. The Din-e Elahi itself is sadly misunderstood as some sort of pan-religious brotherhood, whereas in fact it was closer to a society of nobels pledged to the Emperor, similar organizations also existed in the Safavid and Uzbek states.
    I think trying to find “heros” in history is a fools game that muddies the waters and renders fascinating historical characters into one dimensional characters.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s