Lahore circa 1947

by Khalid Hasan

Ahmad Salim, one of our most assiduous research scholars, whose linguistic and poetic work is spread over more than four decades, put together an anthology four years ago which opens a window on Lahore as it was during the bloody and historic year of 1947. It is good this was done because we forget. In fact, we have already forgotten 1947. A Hamid brought back the city for us as it was in the early years of independence. My translation of this nostalgia-tinged writing, published 64 weeks running in the Daily Times , is currently under publication as a book by Vanguard.

In an introduction to Salim’s anthology, British historian Ian Talbot writes, “The arrival of refugees with tales of atrocities supported by the gruesome evidence of trainloads of corpses encouraged revenge attacks on minority communities. In the longer term, Lahore and more generally Punjab can be seen as a victim of political uncertainties and communal polarisation elsewhere in India.” He notes that relations between Hindus and Muslims had been correct but lacked warmth because of the social distance caused by high-caste Hindu concerns about pollution and inter-dining.

The writer Fikr Taunsavi wrote in his diary on August 14, 1947, “Death with all its horrors awaited the unwary on Lahore’s roads and bazaars, at street corners, on closed shop fronts. It peeped out of the eyes of Hindus and Muslims and Sikhs.” On August 15, he wrote, “Anarkali felt like a corpse, and lay there as if it was a lifeless body. One of the buildings was still smouldering.” Fikr did not want to leave Lahore. His entry for August 17 ran, “A huge stately temple near the Anarkali Chowk was on fire. Openly and shamelessly, and nobody had the nerve to stop it from burning itself. The cloud of smoke was thick and intense. Scores of gods and deities had been imprisoned in this temple – Krishna, Rama, Shivji, Parvati, Hanuman – all were consumed by the fire. So were the laws of Manu, the Rig Veda , the Ramayana and the Shastras . Their souls had left their bodies, and they were now free of the material world.” On August 29, he wrote, “I walked on, looking at everything and trying to reacquaint my eyes with the ways of my beloved Lahore. These buildings, of which city are they? From where have all these people infiltrated my city?”

The Lahore of 1947, though, still had places like the hotel and night place Metro, where WAPDA House now stands. Ibrahim Jalees, who came from Hyderabad, Deccan to Lahore, where his old friend from Bombay, Hamid Akhtar lived (and still lives), subsisted on sporadic work at Imroze. It was Ayub Ahmed Kirmani, who was also from Hyderabad, who took him there one evening. Jalees wrote, “Metro is a very romantic place. When you come out of Shahalmi Gate or from the narrow, twisting and stinking alleys of Abdullah Malik’s Koocha Chabuk Swaran and suddenly enter Metro, you feel as if you have emerged from the war-battered ruins of China’s Nanking city that you see in newsreels and have reached Rainbow Island in the company of Dorothy Lamour. In Metro Pakistan you see the women in colourful dresses dancing with their boyfriends, breast to breast, and even lips to lips, while in Shahalmi Pakistan, a frenzied Muslim may be out with a pair of scissors ready to snip off the plaits of young girls not in purdah .” That Metro and that Lahore have disappeared. There is action still, but it has gone indoors.

Gopal Mittal, another Lahoria, wrote, “Whether the riots were pre-planned or spontaneous, there were various conjectures. Some people averred that the killings began when the hooligans of Amritsar sent women’s bangles to the hooligans of Lahore to indicate their contempt for the latter’s inactivity. Another version was that the Muslim League leaders had themselves provoked them. But then there was also the story that Nawab Mamdot and some other Muslim Leaguers were going from mosque to mosque telling their fellow Muslims to abstain from violence.” One of the most ironic killings in Lahore was that of economist Professor Brij Narayan , who alone believed that Pakistan would survive economically.

Khushwant Singh wrote, “Suddenly riots broke out in Lahore. They were sparked off by the Sikh leader Master Tara Singh making a melodramatic gesture outside the Punjab Legislative Assembly building. Inside the chamber, the chief minister, Khizar Hayat Tiwana, had succumbed to pressure from the Muslim League and resigned. It was now clear that the Muslims of the Punjab had also opted for Pakistan. As soon as the session was over, Master Tara Singh drew his kirpan out of its sheath and yelled, ‘Pakistan Murdabad.’ It was like hurling a lighted matchstick into a room full of explosive gas. Communal riots broke out all over the province. Muslims had the upper hand in the killings. They were in a majority, better organised and better motivated than Hindus or Sikhs.” He recalled how Shahalmi, which was a purely Hindu and Sikh neighbourhood, was set on fire in June 1947. The exodus of Hindus and Sikhs had begun. The first to leave were able to take their belongings with them; those who left later were allowed to take nothing. Arson was followed by loot. And it has continued.

Parkash Tandon from Gujrat, author of Punjabi Century , recalled that until July 1947, few Hindus thought of leaving. The attacks on non-Muslims were sporadic and seen as signs of another riot. As things began to worsen, people started to leave but “the thought that this was a going away forever never crossed anybody’s mind. A calamity might cause temporary uprooting, but afterwards you came back to what had always been your home.” Then a trainload of Hindus and Sikhs was massacred at Gujrat station, and when it arrived at Amritsar with its deathly cargo, the Muslims of the city were made to pay the price. There were also great killings at Shikhupura and on the other side in Jullandhar. Ironically, neither the British nor the leaders of the two communities had foreseen what forces of murder and mayhem they had unleashed. Som Anand, who lived in Model Town, wrote 40 years after Partition, “Lahore’s name has been etched in the memory of all those Punjabis who have ever been part of the pulsating life of that many-splendoured city.”

Pran Neville, who still considers Lahore his home, wrote in 1997, “The spectre of Partition was there but we did not think of leaving Lahore even if it became part of Pakistan. 50 years have passed but the memories are still fresh in the mind and most of us consider ourselves rootless. We are still groping for our identity. We cannot help expressing our disgust with the political leaders of the time and their responsibility for the sufferings.”

Mian Amiruddin, mayor of Lahore, wrote in a memoir, “The Shahalmi area within the walled city was the stronghold of the Hindus. It was like an impregnable fortress. Countless weapons and great quantities of ammunition were stored there, and the Hindus were sure that nothing could happen to Shahalmi. But when we launched our Molotov cocktails, the Shahalmi fort cold not withstand the attack. As the locality burnt down, the Hindus lost heart and began to move towards Amritsar. At some distance from the rear of my house, there was a big Hindu mansion which served as a stockpile of arms and petrol. It was consumed in the flames of its own petrol.”

What I found chilling about this account is its utter lack or remorse. Such, I suppose, were the times.

– Published in the Friday Times

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29 responses to “Lahore circa 1947

  1. Pingback: Global Voices Online » Pakistan: Lahore in 1947

  2. Recently I’ve made many pakistani punjabi friends, and hear their stories of lahore. and then i read this, and i wonder… was it worth it? i do not think it can be undone, but was it worth it?

  3. Whatever happened in 1947 was unfortunate. People from both Punjabs, I would say not Hindustan or Pakistan sufferd. A person who is sitting in Karachi or Bombay did not lost any family. It is only Punjabis from both sides who lost their families and houses.

    Muslims, Sikhs and Hindu population all were affected by the partition.
    So there is no need to blame any community.

    Any way it has to happen because the British had almost left the country taking full loads of all the wealth, jewellery, diamonds, weapons and raw material. So there was no government to control law and order situation.
    Let us pray for everyone.We do not want to see those days.

  4. Iftikhar Anwar

    THANKS for a somber and essential look back.
    Amrita Pritam was forced to flee Lahore when she was 18. Some where in her poetry she called out to Warris Shah and said some thing like ” aa Warris Shah dekh apna Punjab, Lashaan phurian khetaan which, khoon naal phurya Chenab”.
    Oh Warris Shah come look at your Punjab, The fields are full of Murdered bodies, Full of blood is River Chenab.
    I wonder if Warris Shah cried in his grave.
    My family fled their ancestral home in Ludhiana and settled in Lahore. Many a murdered body they saw on their way, many an act of kindness.
    What have we done to make sure this kind of hate never happens again? What have we done to stop hate speech before it takes flight?

  5. Amrita’s famous poem was:

    Ajj aakhan Waris Shah nu, kithon qabran wichon bol
    te ajj kitab-e-ishq da koi agla warqa pharol.

    uth bedardan deya dardya, uth tak apna Punjab,
    Ajj bele lashan wichyan, te lahu nal bhari Chenab.

    Ajj sabhe Qaido ban gaye ne husn ishaq de chor,
    Ajj kithon liyahiye labh ke, Waris Shah ik hor.

    It was something like it. I will try to find the whole piece with exact wordings.

  6. Iftikhar Anwar

    Thank you Amjad Sahib. That was beautiful. If you find Amrita Pritam’s poetry let me know. I am at suchalhr@sbcglobal.net

  7. Aaj Aakhan Waris Shah nu : Amrita Pritam Ji

    aaj aakhaN Waris Shah nuuN, kitoN kabraaN vichchoN bol,
    te aaj kitab-e ishq daa koii aglaa varkaa phol

    ik roii sii dhii punjaab dii, tuuN likh likh maare vaen,
    aaj lakhaaN dhiiaaN rondiaa, tainuN waris shah nuN kahen

    uTh dardmandaaN diaa dardiaa, uth takk apnaa Punjaab
    aaj bele lashaaN bichhiaaN te lahu dii bharii chenab

    kise ne panjaN paniaN vichch dittii zahar ralaa
    te unhaaN paniiaaN dharat nuuN dittaa paanii laa

    is zarkhez zamiin de luun luun phuttia zaher
    gitth gitth charhiaaN laaliaN fuuT fuuT charhiaa kaher

    veh valliissii vha pher, van van vaggii jaa,
    ohne har ik vans di vanjhalii ditti naag banaa

    pehlaa dang madaariaN, mantar gaye guaach,
    dooje dang di lagg gayii, jane khane nuN laag

    laagaaN kiile lok muNh, bus phir dang hi dang,
    palo palii punjaab de, neele pae gaye ang

    gale`oN tutt`e geet phir, takaleon tuttii tand,
    trinjanoN tuttiaaN saheliaaN, chaRakhRre ghuukar band

    sane sej de beriaaN, luddaN dittiaaN rohr,
    sane daliaan peengh aj, piplaaN dittii toR

    jitthe vajdii sii phuuk pyaar dii, ve oh vanjhalii gayii guaach
    raanjhe de sab veer aaj, bhul gaye uhadii jaach

    dhartii te lahoo varsiyaa, kabraaN paiaaN choan,
    preet diaaN shaahzaadiaaN, aaj vichch mazaaraaN roan

    aaj sabbhe `Qaido` ban gaye, husn ishq de chor
    aaj kitthoN liaaiye labbh ke waris shah ik hor

    aaj aakhaN waris shah nuuN, kitoN kabraan vichchoN bol,
    te aaj kitaab-e ishq daa, koii aglaa varkaa phol

  8. sukhdev singh sohal

    Indeed,an excellant work of Ahmad Salim.May I have more information on the death of Prof Brij Narain.I am doing research on his economic ideology.

  9. stop rubish talking here

  10. Happy new year 2010. With new hopes and spirits for our country

    We pray that this new may be a useful and foolproof from all kind of troubles.

  11. The Great Leader
    Akbar Bugti was the son of Nawab Mehrab Khan Bugti and a grandson of Sir Shahbaz Khan Bugti. He was born in Barkhan the rural home of the rustic Khetran a ( Marri-Bugti ) Baloch tribe to which his mother belonged and now an upgraded district of Balochistan, on July 12, 1927. He was educated at Oxford, England and Aitchison College, Lahore. It is alleged that he committed his first murder when he was only 12 and that he had several men killed to avenge the assassination of his son, (Salal Bugti). Nawab Akbar Bugti was elected in a by-election to the National Assembly of Pakistan in May 1958 to fill the vacancy created as a result of the assassination of the incumbent, Dr Khan Sahib, and sat on the government bench as a member of the ruling coalition.

    Bugti (Republican) served as Minister of State (Interior) in the government of Prime Minister Malik Sir Feroz Khan Noon (Republican) from September 20, 1958, to October 7, 1958, when the cabinet was dismissed on the declaration of Martial Law by President Iskander Mirza.

    He was arrested and convicted by a Military Tribunal in 1960 and subsequently disqualified from holding public office. As a result of his legal battles, he did not contest the 1970 general elections. Instead, he campaigned on behalf of his younger brother, Sardar Ahmed Nawaz Bugti, a candidate of the National Awami Party.

    However, Bugti developed differences with the NAP leadership, especially the new Balochistan Governor, Ghaus Baksh Bizenjo. He informed the Federal Government and President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (Pakistan Peoples Party) of the alleged London Plan, which resulted in the dismissal of the provincial governor as well as the Chief Minister Sardar Ataullah Khan Mengal and his cabinet on February 14, 1973.

    The next day, the Federal Government appointed Bugti as the Governor of Balochistan, and the Pakistan Army was deployed in the province as part of a crackdown on the National Awami Party.

    He resigned on January 1, 1974, after disagreeing with the manner in which the Federal Government was carrying out policies in Balochistan. The army had deployed 100,000 men in Balochistan and with the help of the Iranian airforce killed large numbers of Balochis. Muhammad Raza Shah Pahlavi, the King of Iran, sent F-14 fighter jets and AH-1 gunships along with his pilots, to help Pakistan Army combat the insurgency. The Pakistani army is alleged to have killed more than 4000 Balochi, mostly Marri insurgents, in these operations. Akbar Bugti is said to have supported the military action.

    There was a lull in his activities when General Rahimuddin Khan was appointed Governor of Balochistan in 1978. Bugti remained silent throughout the course of Rahimuddin’s rule, which was often characterized by hostility towards the Baloch Sardars.

    In 1988, he joined the Balochistan National Alliance and was elected Chief Minister on February 4, 1989. His government frequently disagreed with the Federal Government led by the Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto (Pakistan Peoples Party).

    Bugti resigned on August 6, 1990, when the provincial assembly was dissolved by Governor of Balochistan General Muhammad Musa Khan in accordance with the instructions of President Ghulam Ishaq Khan, who was exercising his authority by virtue of Article 58 (2 b) of the Constitution of Pakistan.

    For the 1990 General Elections, Bugti formed his own political party, the Jamhoori Watan Party (JWP), being Balochistan’s single largest party and was elected to the provincial assembly.

    In 1993, he was elected to the National Assembly of Pakistan, representing the JWP in parliament. Also, in 1993, Nawab Bugti announced his candidacy to be President of Pakistan but later withdrew his candidacy and announced his support of the eventual winner, Sardar Farooq Ahmed Khan Leghari. In 1997, Nawab Bugti was re-elected to the National Assembly of Pakistan, representing the JWP.

    Bugti was involved in struggles, at times armed ones, in Balochistan in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. He led the current movement in Balochistan for greater autonomy. He was the public face and provided political support for the movement while his grandson, Brahamdagh Khan Bugti, led the Bugti tribesmen.

    DEATH:
    On Saturday August 26, 2006, around 2230 hrs (PST), Bugti was killed in a bombing operation that caused the cave roof to collapse on him. His location was traced through the satellite phone he was using, and Pakistani secret service agencies pin-pointed his location. (It is not clear if he was pinpointed through a satellite phone)[4] The news of his death was broken to the media by Makhdoom Amin Fahim, leader of Pakistan Peoples Party Parliamentarians. But Bugti’s family has rejected the news that he was killed in a cave or the cave roof collapsed on him and it caused his death, they insisted that he got killed while he was fighting with Pakistan’s army SSG Commandos.

    Pakistani President, Gen Pervez Musharraf, has termed his death a victory for Pakistanis and congratulated the secret service chief who carried out this operation. Pakistan’s Information Minister Mohammad Ali Durrani, confirmed that the operation included both air and ground assault. In a short telephonic interview made to a private television network, Pakistani Information Minister said that Bugti’s death occurred as the cave he was in collapsed.

    There have been stories reported in the press that Akbar Bugti’s otherwise Marri allies, who apparently were still embittered by his support of the 1970s military operation against them, exposed his hiding place to the Army, who surrounded the area and sent in a few senior officers in charge of the operation along with a Bugti guide into the Nawab’s cave to negotiate a surrender. Given Akbar Bugti’s renowned stubbornness and non-compromising attitude, it is thought that Bugti or his associates detonated explosives in the case, killing all present inside, including the army negotiators and Akbar Bugti himself. Thus creating a legacy that Bugti was a ‘martyr’ for Baluch rights and freedom.

    On August 24, 2006, under controversial circumstances, some Bugti tribesmen announced an end to the Nawabi system and requested the handing over of Nawab Bugti to authorities. His property was seized, and he was declared as a “proclaimed offender.”[citation needed]

    Bugti’s death was followed by rioting by hundreds of students from the state-run Balochistan university.[5] As the news flashed across television screens in Pakistan, the government deployed Rangers and paramilitary forces across major cities to prevent a backlash and impose a curfew in the provincial capital, Quetta.[5] Security arrangements for the Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf have been beefed up to the highest level, and his movement has since been very restricted, fearing a retaliatory attack. Security arrangements have been further enhanced in and around all airports of Pakistan. The media both in Pakistan and outside have severely condemend the killing as the “[m]ilitary’s second biggest blunder after Bhutto’s execution” and calling it a “political nightmare”.[6] Others have likened it to the East Bengal crisis of 1971 where military violence eventually led to the Bangladesh Liberation War.[7]

    On August 27, 2006, some private media broadcast news that Bugti’s grandsons, Brahamdagh and Mir Ali, are still alive, but no official confirmation has been made.[citation needed]

    On September 1, 2006 Bugti was buried in Dera Bugti with three locks on coffin, next to the graves of his son and brother. His family, who wanted a public funeral in Quetta, did not attend the burial, their protest against his body was locked in coffin .[8]

    FAMILY

    Nawab Mehrab Khan Bugti, son of Sir Shahbaz Khan Bugti had two sons, Nawab Akbar Bugti and Nawabzada Ahmed Nawaz Bugti. Nawab Akbar Bugti had two wives and five sons and seven daughters. From his first wife: Nawabzada Saleem Khan Bugti, Nawabzada Talal Khan Bugti, Nawabzada Rehan Khan Bugti, and Nawabzada Salal Khan Bugti. Of these four sons, three have died. Nawabzada Salal Bugti was murdered in a shootout in Quetta by the rival Bugti Kalpar sub clan in June 1992. From Nawab Akbar Bugti’s second wife; Nawabzada Jameel Akbar Bugti. Jamil Akbar Bugti, and Talal Akbar Bugti, are the surviving sons of Nawab Akbar Bugti. Sardar Ahmed Nawaz Khan Bugti had three sons the eldest being Biveragh Khan Bugti, Murtaza Bugti and Fahad Bugti.

    The Bugti grandson’s consist of Brahamdagh Khan Bugti (son of Rehan Khan Bugti), Mir Aali Bugti (son of Salim Bugti), Washane Bugti and Sarang Bugti (Grandsons of Sardar Ahmed Nawaz Bugti). Ahmad Marri and Muhammad Marri (Son’s of Humayun Khan Marri), Shazain Bugti, Taleh Bugti and Gohram Bugti (son’s of Talal Bugti).
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    Goal
    Youth for Peace aims to bring about a society of peace and social justice in Cambodia, through the development of good role models and active citizenship of youth who understand and practice a culture of peace.

    Objectives
    Through the YFP program:

    Youth are equipped with peacebuilding tools and skills and are empowered to be agents of social change
    Civil society is challenged and impacted for change through education and awareness of peaceful solutions to problems of social injustice

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  18. Early life
    Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry was born on 12 December 1948 (1948-12-12) (age 61) in Queeta, Pakistan. Chaudhry belongs to the Ghorewaha clan of Muslim Rajputs. His father migrated to and permanently settled in Quetta, Balochistan, where Chaudhry grew up.

    Career in Law
    Chaudhry has a Bachelors in Arts and Bachelors in Law (LLB) from Jamshoro-Sindh. He joined the bar in 1974. Later, he was enrolled as Advocate of the High Court in 1976 and as an Advocate of the Supreme Court in 1985. In 1989 he was appointed as Advocate General, Balochistan. He was elevated as Additional Judge, Balochistan High Court on 6 November 1990 until 21 April 1999.[6]. On April 22, 1999 he became Chief Justice of Balochistan High Court. Besides remaining as Judge of High Court, he discharged duties as Banking Judge, Judge Special Court for Speedy Trials, Judge Customs Appellate Courts as well as Company Judge. Justice Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry also remained President of High Court Bar Association, Quetta, and was elected twice as Member of the Bar Council. In 1992 he was appointed as Chairman of Balochistan Local Council Election Authority and thereafter for second term in 1998. He also worked as Chairman, Provincial Review Board for the province of Balochistan and was twice appointed as Chairman of the Pakistan Red Crescent Society, Balochistan.

    On February 4, 2000 he was nominated Justice of Supreme Court of Pakistan. On June 30, 2005 he became the Chief Justice of Pakistan. At present, Justice Iftikhar is also functioning as Chairman, Enrollment Committee of Pakistan Bar Council and as Chairman, Supreme Court Building Committee

  19. Amjed Saleem Alvi

    Do not forget to mention that:

    1. Chaudhry Sahab was the person who legitimised the Martial Law of General pervez Musharraf as Judge Supreme Court.

    2. He was the respected person who took oath under PCO.

    3. He was the person who served under Nawab Akbar Bugti as Advocate general balochistan, but he had no courage to condle his brutal murder, because then he had good relations with General Musharraf.

    4. After his restoration by the order of Supreme Court in July 2007, he himself was heading the bench who was hearing case against NRO. MNohtarma Benazir Bhutto was signatory to the NRO, and in that case she was the main accused. But when she was martyred, and Mr. Ch. was released from the house arrest by the order of PM Gilani, he went to condole the death of the main accused of the NRO, to the co accused, Mr. zardari, of the same case.

    Character of a person builds in his childhood and boyhood. Old habbits seldom die. God forbid, if another martial law comes, see the real character of the person. Our Judges have a track record of invoking Law of Necessity any time sir.

  20. Early life
    Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry was born on 12 December 1948 (1948-12-12) (age 61) in Queeta, Pakistan. Chaudhry belongs to the Ghorewaha clan of Muslim Rajputs. His father migrated to and permanently settled in Quetta, Balochistan, where Chaudhry grew up.

    Career in Law
    Chaudhry has a Bachelors in Arts and Bachelors in Law (LLB) from Jamshoro-Sindh. He joined the bar in 1974. Later, he was enrolled as Advocate of the High Court in 1976 and as an Advocate of the Supreme Court in 1985. In 1989 he was appointed as Advocate General, Balochistan. He was elevated as Additional Judge, Balochistan High Court on 6 November 1990 until 21 April 1999.[6]. On April 22, 1999 he became Chief Justice of Balochistan High Court. Besides remaining as Judge of High Court, he discharged duties as Banking Judge, Judge Special Court for Speedy Trials, Judge Customs Appellate Courts as well as Company Judge. Justice Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry also remained President of High Court Bar Association, Quetta, and was elected twice as Member of the Bar Council. In 1992 he was appointed as Chairman of Balochistan Local Council Election Authority and thereafter for second term in 1998. He also worked as Chairman, Provincial Review Board for the province of Balochistan and was twice appointed as Chairman of the Pakistan Red Crescent Society, Balochistan.

    On February 4, 2000 he was nominated Justice of Supreme Court of Pakistan. On June 30, 2005 he became the Chief Justice of Pakistan. At present, Justice Iftikhar is also functioning as Chairman, Enrollment Committee of Pakistan Bar Council and as Chairman, Supreme Court Building Committee

    Do not forget to mention that:

    1. Chaudhry Sahab was the person who legitimised the Martial Law of General pervez Musharraf as Judge Supreme Court.

    2. He was the respected person who took oath under PCO.

    3. He was the person who served under Nawab Akbar Bugti as Advocate general balochistan, but he had no courage to condle his brutal murder, because then he had good relations with General Musharraf.

    4. After his restoration by the order of Supreme Court in July 2007, he himself was heading the bench who was hearing case against NRO. MNohtarma Benazir Bhutto was signatory to the NRO, and in that case she was the main accused. But when she was martyred, and Mr. Ch. was released from the house arrest by the order of PM Gilani, he went to condole the death of the main accused of the NRO, to the co accused, Mr. zardari, of the same case.

    Character of a person builds in his childhood and boyhood. Old habbits seldom die. God forbid, if another martial law comes, see the real character of the person. Our Judges have a track record of invoking Law of Necessity any time sir.
    Leave a Comment

  21. Abdullah Shah Ghazi (Arabic: عبد الله شاه غازى‎ ) is considered to be patron saint of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. He is widely revered in Pakistan. His tomb is also a revered Sindhi shrine especially for the Bawarij Sindhi Muslims and the Samma tribe.

    The Mausoleum and Dargah of Abdullah Shah Ghazi is located in Clifton[1] neighbourhood of Saddar Town in Karachi.

    The Shrine of Hazrat Abdullah Shah Ghazi in Karachi[edit] History
    There are two versions about Abdullah Shah Ghazi.

    The first version states that Abdullah Shah Ghazi was Syed Abu Muhammad Abdullah Al Ishtar from the lineage of the Prophet Muhammad from the linage of Hasan Ibne Ali Ibne Abu Talib[2]. According to historian Suhail Zaheer Lari, he was the son of Muhammad al-Nafs al-Zakiyya.[3] He was born in Medina in the year 720 and arrived in Sindh in the year 760 as a merchant and brought with him a large number of horses purchased from Kufa, Iraq. He was given a warm welcome as he belonged to a saadat family, the noblest in Islam.

    The second version has been given by, Dr. Umar Bin Muhammad Daudpota proposes that the real name of Abdullah Shah was General Abdulla bin Nabhan. Who along with another senior commander, Badil bin Tuhafa, had launched a military expedition against the local ruler, Raja Dahir. The assault was a response to the activities of Raja Dahir, who was seen as encouraging pirates to raid Arab shipping. The war is generally attributed to being triggered by a noble woman who wrote to the then Governor of Basra, Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf, that she had been kidnapped. Al Hajjaj then wrote a letter to the Raja Dahir who replied that he did not exercise any control over pirates in his kingdom thereby triggering a military expedition that ensued at Debal, near modern day Karachi. Later, a second mission was entrusted to a young commander, Muhammad bin Qasim who successfully defeated the Raja and rescued the noble woman and the other muslim prisoners. This version is at odds with first, as it paints a picture of an Ummayad prince. Ummayyads persecuted the progeny of prophet Muhammad particularly the families of the imams in whom was vested religious authority which challenged the former’s role as Kahalifas (Caliphs).

    While Muhammad bin Qasim pressed on to topple the Raja and conquer, Abdullah Shah continued to live and preach Islam in Sindh. Beside preaching, Abdullah Shah was very fond of hunting. In old times, Sindh had plenty of wildlife like ibex, urial, blue bull, gazelle and deer. In his passion for hunting, Abdullah used to go far from the base and while he had was far enough away he was intercepted by the enemy. Out-numbered, he preferred to fight rather than submitting and it is because of this display of valor he was given the title of “Ghazi” meaning “victorious”.

    He died in the year 773 near the sea while dressed in war attire. He was buried at the present place, atop a hill in Karachi.

    In December each year, a great festival is held at the shrine for 3 days marking the anniversary of Abdullah where Muslims from all factions come in large number. The festival is enjoyed even by some non-Muslim as the saint is revered by all for preaching love, tolerance and politeness.

    Abdullah Shah Ghazi’s shrine in Karachi is dated back to 1400 years ago, his brother, Syed Misry Shah, who is also buried along the coastline in Karachi, is also remembered as a saint.

    Inside the shrine of the Abdullah Shah Ghazi, patron saint of KarachiMany people claim to have been granted their wishes at the shrine and it is the centre for people who throng the shrine all year round. Every year marks the Urs (festival) at the shrine for 3 days (dates: 20-22 Dhu al-Hijjah – 12th month of the Islamic calendar), marking the anniversary of Abdullah Shah Ghazi. A famous myth about the mazar is that Karachi never had a tropical disaster in a thousand year because of the shrine’s blessing

    Malik Tehseen Awan
    Ex Ticket Holder PML(N) PP-52 Faisalabad at PML(N), Coordinator PP-52 at PML(N)
    0092 300 5000918

  22. King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz Bin Abdulrahman Bin Faisal Bin Turki Bin Abdullah Bin Muhammad Bin Saud, Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, (Arabic: خادم الحرمين الشريفين الملك عبد الله بن عبد العزيز آلسعود‎, born August 1, 1924)[5] is the current King of Saudi Arabia, and head of the House of Saud. He succeeded to the throne and assumed the title of King upon the death of his half-brother, King Fahd, on August 1, 2005.[6] As Crown Prince since 1982, he had previously acted as de facto regent and thus ruler of Saudi Arabia since January 1, 1996, when king Fahd was incapacitated by a major stroke.[7] He was formally enthroned on August 3, 2005. One of his sons, Prince Mutaib, serves as a deputy commander in the Saudi National Guard. He is, after his half-brothers Bandar and Musa’id, the third eldest of the living sons of Abdul Aziz ibn Saud.

    King Abdullah also serves as Prime Minister of Saudi Arabia and Commander of the Saudi National Guard. He is chairman of the Supreme Economic Council, president of the High Council for Petroleum and Minerals, president of the King Abdulaziz Centre for National Dialogue, chairman of the Council of Civil Service and head of the Military Service Council. Abdullah is the fifth son (out of 37 sons) of King Abdulaziz bin Abdulrahman Al Saud, the founder of modern Saudi Arabia, to ascend to the throne.[8] At age 86, he is currently the world’s oldest-serving monarch

    Malik Tehseen Awan
    Ex Ticket Holder PML(N) PP-52 Faisalabad at PML(N), Coordinator PP-52 at PML(N)
    0092 300 5000918

  23. Crown Prince Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al Saud
    Since 1997, Crown Prince Abdullah has taken on much of the day-to-day responsibilities of running the government. Since his debut as a leader, the crown prince earned admiration from Western diplomats, and early worries that he might be less friendly to the West than his brother appeared to have been overblown. His Royal Highness Prince Abdullah [Abd Allah] Ibn Abdul Aziz Al Saud is Crown Prince, First Deputy Prime Minister and Commander of the National Guard of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Prince Abdullah has been Crown Prince and First Deputy Prime Minister since June 1982. He was born in Riyadh in 1924 and received formal education from religious scholars and intellectuals at the royal court. Prince Abdullah has commanded the Saudi National Guard since 1962. Abdullah’s second son, Mitaab bin Abdullah bin Abdel-Aziz, is assistant deputy commander of the National Guard.

    Abdullah is second in command, mainly due to King Khalid (King before Fahd) who took a particular liking to him because he offset the Sudairis. Crown Prince Abdullah has no full brothers, which makes his position potentially weaker than that of the powerful Sudairi Seven, but also distances him from unpopular conduct by other ruling family members and enables him to form his own alliances with other half-brothers among the sons of Ibn Saud. Prince Abdullah married a Syrian woman who is a relative of President Asad of Syria.

    Abdullah is considered the leader of the Shammar branch of the Al Saud, a rival source of power to the Sudairi branch that dominated the regular armed forces. Crown Prince Abdallah’s mother is a member of the Rashid clan of Shammar tribe. Jabal Shammar is a former emirate in northern Saudi Arabia. Its capital was at Hail.

    The Bedouin genealogies, in which they pretend to be eminently versed, are not to be much depended on; the more so that their own family names hardly ever exceed the limits of a patronymic, while the constantly renewed subdivisions of a tribe, and the temporary increase of one branch and decrease of another, tend to efface the original name of the clan. Certain broad divisions are tolerably accurately kept up among the wider and more important clans. The Aneza clan extend from Syria southward to the limits of Jebel Shammar. The Shammar Bedouin’s pasturages lie conterminous to those of the Aneza on the east. Their numbers are about the same. In the northern desert, the Huwetat and Sherarat, comparatively small tribes. There is also the Solibi clan, which, however, is disowned by the Arabs, and seems to be of gypsy origin. Next follow, in the western desert, the Beni-Harb. In the eastern desert are the Muter, the BeniKhalid, and the Ajmans. To the south, in Nejd itself or on its frontiers, are the Hodeil, Ateba, and others. These all belong to the “Mustareb,” or northern Arabs.

    In 1921, Ibn Saud conquered the forces of the emir, Ibn Rashid, and annexed the territory to his kingdom of Nejd. Hail is a town in Northern Arabia, ruled since 1835 by the Al Rashid Amirs, Heads of the Shammar clan, overthrown in 1921 by Saudi King Abd al Aziz, who effected political marriages to the Rashidis and other powerful families to disarm opposition. Since Prince Abdullah’s mother was tribal, his loyalty is towards the tribesman and conservatives. He is known to be unhappy with the over modernization and development of the country, especially with American pressure.

    Influenced by his father, founder of the modern Kingdom King Abdul Aziz Al Saud, he developed a profound respect for religion, history and the Arab heritage. His years spent living in the desert with Bedouin tribes taught him their values of honor, simplicity, generosity and bravery. Throughout his life, Prince Abdullah has retained a love of the desert, along with a love of horsemanship. He is a breeder of pure Arabian horses, and founder of the Riyadh-based equestrian club.

    In 1962 Prince Abdullah was chosen by King Faisal to command the National Guard, which was formed from descendents of those who were King Abdul Aziz’ followers. This is a particularly appropriate appointment given his knowledge of the tribes of Saudi Arabia and his awareness of the heritage of the Arabian peninsula. Furthermore, the National Guard and its Commander are renowned for their efforts to preserve and celebrate the country’s cultural heritage.

    Abdullah had no full brothers, but he cultivated close relationships with half brothers and nephews who also lacked family allies because they either had no full brothers or were isolated for some other reason. For example, in 1984 Abdullah had appointed one of the sons of deposed King Saud as commander of the national guard in the Eastern Province. Prior to the 1991 Persian Gulf War, the Abdullah faction had a reputation as traditionalists who opposed many of the domestic and foreign polices favored by the Al Sudairi. In particular, the Abdullah faction criticized the kingdom’s military dependence on the United States. The Abdullah faction also was a proponent of closer relations with Iran and Syria. During the Persian Gulf War, however, Abd Allah supported the decision to permit stationing of United States troops in the country.

    Abdullah was anti-American in the Gulf War, but Fahd demanded United States support, so he had to follow. In addition, Abdullah boycotted Egypt in 1979 after the Camp David Accords, but in 1991 Abdullah supported the Egyptian proposal to end the Arab boycott to Israel if Israel agreed to stop new settlements in the occupied territory. Abdullah tried to advocate against the pro-Western faction within the dynasty. He also push for closer Saudi cooperation with the other Arab states, and tried to mediate the Lebanese crisis, and theSyrian Jordanian dispute in 1980. In addition, Abdullah opposed Fahd’s 8 point programme to try to settle the Arab-Israeli conflict.

    Early in 1996, the Crown Prince, in his capacity as Deputy Prime Minister, presided over cabinet meetings and governed the country while King Fahd was resting.

    In February 2002 Deputy Prime Minister and Commander of the National Guard Crown Prince Abdullah bin Abdulaziz unveiled an initiative for resolving the crisis on the basis of Israeli withdrawal from all Arab territories it occupied in the 1967 war in return for full normalization of relations between the two sides. This plan was adopted by the summit meeting of the League of Arab States in Beirut in March

    Malik Tehseen Awan
    Ex Ticket Holder PML(N) PP-52 Faisalabad at PML(N), Coordinator PP-52 at PML(N)

  24. King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz
    Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz was proclaimed the sixth King of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on August 1, 2005, upon the death of Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Fahd bin Abdulaziz.
    King Abdullah is also Prime Minister of the Council of Ministers and Commander of the National Guard.

    King Abdullah was born in Riyadh in 1924, and received his early education at the royal court. Influenced by his father, founder of the modern Kingdom King Abdulaziz Al Saud, he developed a profound respect for religion, history and the Arab heritage. His years spent living in the desert with Bedouin tribes taught him their values of honor, simplicity, generosity and bravery, and instilled in him the desire to assist in the development of his people.

    In 1962, Prince Abdullah was chosen by King Faisal to command the National Guard. He was appointed Second Deputy Prime Minister in 1975 on the succession of King Khalid, and when King Fahd came to the throne in 1982, he was named Crown Prince and First Deputy Prime Minister. In the latter capacity, he presided over cabinet meetings and governed the country as deputy to Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Fahd bin Abdulaziz.

    Since ascending the throne in 2005, King Abdullah has made development a central focus of his reign. He has initiated a range of major economic, social, education, health, and infrastructure projects that have brought about remarkable changes throughout the Kingdom.

    King Abdullah’s notable achievements in this area include the launch of four mega economic cities, the creation of the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology and the Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University for Girls, projects to expand the Two Holy Mosques and major welfare projects. He also approved a historic reorganization of Saudi Arabia’s judicial system and enacted laws to formalize the royal succession. As Crown Prince in 2005, he closely monitored the ongoing election process for the country’s municipal councils.

    On a global level, King Abdullah’s participation in international diplomacy reflects the Kingdom’s leadership role in defense of Arab and Islamic issues and for the achievement of world peace, stability and security.

    He has taken a leading role in promoting dialogue among the world’s leading faiths. His call for interfaith dialogue has resulted in the convention of the World Conference on Dialogue in Madrid, Spain and a United Nations conference on dialogue in 2008.

    King Abdullah has also sought to resolve conflicts in the Arab and Islamic world. Peace in the Middle East and the plight of the Palestinians are of particular concern to him, and the initiative on these that he presented at the Beirut Arab Summit in 2002 has been adopted by the League of Arab States, as has his forward-looking strategy for a unified Arab stance on international issues. He has played a key role in brokering agreements for a Palestinian national unity government and a reconciliation accord between Sudan and Chad on Darfur.

    A strong advocate of constructive global cooperation, King Abdullah has held a number of important international summits and meetings in the Kingdom. In June 2008, he hosted the Jeddah energy summit to discuss ways of stabilizing global oil markets. Other major international meetings include the Third OPEC Summit of Heads of State and the 19th Arab League Summit in 2007 and the 27th summit of the GCC Supreme Council in 2006.

    On the issue of terrorism, King Abdullah has been unwavering in his condemnation of the taking of innocent lives, and in his denunciation of deviant groups that falsely claim to be Islamic. At the Counter-Terrorism International Conference in Riyadh in February, 2005, he urged international cooperation to fight this global scourge.

    King Abdullah has undertaken numerous state visits both as Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques and as Crown Prince to strengthen Saudi Arabia’s relations with countries around the world. Recent state visits include Spain, France, Egypt, Jordan, Britain, Italy, Germany and Turkey in 2007, and China, India, Pakistan and Malaysia in 2006.

    The King’s first official visit to the United States was as Prince Abdullah in 1976, when he met with President Gerald Ford. His second visit was in October 1987, as Crown Prince, when he met with President George H.W. Bush. In September 1998, he made his third state visit to the United States, meeting in Washington, DC with President Bill Clinton. He met again with President Clinton in September 2000 while attending the Millennium event at the UN in New York.

    On April 25, 2002, and again on April 25, 2005, Crown Prince Abdullah was received by President George W. Bush at the presidential ranch in Crawford, Texas. In 2008, King Abdullah twice hosted President Bush at the royal ranch in Jenadriyah, most recently in May when the president visited Saudi Arabia to mark the 70th anniversary of Saudi-US relations.

    Throughout his life, King Abdullah has retained a love of the desert, along with a love of horsemanship. He is a breeder of pure Arabian horses, and founder of the equestrian club in Riyadh. Another life-long passion is reading, to which he attributes great importance. He has established two libraries, the King Abdulaziz Library in Riyadh, and one in Casablanca, Morocco.

    Malik Tehseen Awan
    Ex Ticket Holder PML(N) PP-52 Faisalabad at PML(N), Coordinator PP-52 at PML(N)

  25. Welcome To Pakistan – The Land of Adventure and Nature

    From the mighty stretches of the Karakorams in the North to the vast alluvial delta of the Indus River in the South, Pakistan remains a land of high adventure and nature. Trekking, mountaineering, white water rafting, wild boar hunting, mountain and desert jeep safaris, camel and yak safaris, trout fishing and bird watching, are a few activities, which entice the adventure and nature lovers to Pakistan.

    Malik Tehseen Awan
    Ex Ticket Holder PML(N) PP-52 Faisalabad at PML(N), Coordinator PP-52 at PML(N)

    Pakistan is endowed with a rich and varied flora and fauna. High Himalayas, Karakoram and the Hindukush ranges with their alpine meadows and permanent snow line, coniferous forests down the sub-mountain scrub, the vast Indus plain merging into the great desert, the coast line and wetlands, all offer a remarkably rich variety of vegetation and associated wildlife including avifauna, both endemic and migratory. Ten of 18 mammalian orders are represented in Pakistan with species ranging from the world’s smallest surviving mammals, the Mediterranean Pigmy Shrew, to the largest mammal ever known; the blue whale.

  26. harman lahoria

    it indeed was very sad.. m sikh and m from ferozepur(india), and i want to visit raja jhung, where my forefathers belongs to. i hope, one day will come, wen i’ll be there….
    my grandfather used to say that” jihne lahore ni vekheya, ohne ki vekheya”

    i hope, one day i’ll be visiting lahore. the historical city of punjab..

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  29. When someone writes an paragraph he/she retains the idea of a user in his/her brain that how a user can know it.
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