Ajoka’s new play on “Dara Shikoh”

Posted by Raza Rumi

It is absolutely a great development. Ajoka has decided to stage a play on a personality that has been neglected by India and Pakistan. His views and role in history challenges the myths of Indian and Pakistani nationalism and confronts religious militancy rampant in the two countries. Had Dara – the visionary, sage and believer in humanism – lived, we may have avoided blood, carnage and violence that defines South Asia of today. Those interested to explore the hidden history, removed from textbook propaganda must watch this play. The venue and timings can be found at the end of this post. Now the formal introduction to the play:

Dara – A play on the life and times of Mughal prince Dara Shikoh

Ajoka’s new play “Dara” is about the less-known but extremely dramatic and moving story of Dara Shikoh, eldest son of Emperor Shahjahan, who was imprisoned and executed by his younger brother Aurangzeb. Dara was not only a crown prince but also a poet, a painter and a Sufi. He wanted to build on the vision of Akbar the Great and bring the ruling Muslim elite closer to the local religions. His search for the Truth and shared teachings of all major religions is reflected in his scholarly works such as Sakeena-tul-Aulia, Safina-tul-Aulia and Majma-ul-Bahrain. The play also explores the existential conflict between Dara the crown prince, and Dara the Sufi and the poet.

The violent and devastating struggle between brothers Dara and Aurangzeb, the decisive role played by their sisters Jahan Ara and Roshan Ara, the spiritual challenge posed by the naked sufi Sarmad to the authority of the muftis and qazis of the Empire and the growing discontent among the masses are elements which make “Dara” a gripping and powerful play. And of course like all Ajoka’s plays DARA has a very relevant message for our contemporary times.

Dara has been written and directed by Shahid Nadeem and includes live qawwalis and songs based on the lyrics of Amir Khusrau, Sarmad and Dara.

For further Information & passes:-
Ajoka: 92-42-36682443, 36686634 / Alhamra: 92-42-99200917, 99200918
Thursday, February 25, 2010 at 7:00pm

Saturday, February 27, 2010 at 9:00pm

Location: Hall #2, Alhamra The Mall, Lahore

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11 responses to “Ajoka’s new play on “Dara Shikoh”

  1. LAHORE NAMA PEOPLE ARE DOING A WONDERUL JOB FOR LAHORITES. PLEASE KEEP IT UP. ALSO THANKS TO AJOKA ORGANIZERS FOR ARRANGING PLAYS RELATED TO OUR HISTORY, CULTURE AND MILUE. BEST WISHES

  2. Agha Saheb
    Many thanks for the comment. Please keep visiting and send us ideas and suggestions on how to improve the content – and what should feature here..
    Salam
    Raza Rumi (Editor)

  3. Lal Shahbaz Qalandar

    Lal Shahbaz Qalandar’s real name was Muhammad Uthman, who was born in 1143 in Marand, near Tabraiz, Iran. He was the direct descendent of Imam Jafar as-Sadiq.

    Lal Shahbaz after completing his education left for Baghdad where he met Baba Ibrahim Karbalai and became his disciple. Baba Ibrahim was the spiritual follower of Jamal Mujjarrad (the celibate).

    Lal Shahbaz received khilafat (spiritual sainthood) and other sacred gifts including a stone, which was attributed to Imam Zainul Abideen, from his Shaykh Baba Ibrahim. It is said to be the same stone that hangs on his tomb in Sehwan. Following instructions from his Shaykh, Lal Shahbaz left Baghdad for Sindh via Balkh and Khurasan. In Balkh, the childless King had asked him to pray for him so that he could have an heir to his throne. Lal Shahbaz did pray for him for the birth of his Crown prince but later told him that his would be son would actually be working for him (Lal Shahbaz). That would be Crown prince is known in history as Abu Ben Adham (Abu Ibrahim Ben Adham) who after ruling the Balkh State for some years, abdicated his throne to become a dervish.

    In Khurasan Lal Shabaz is said to have meditated continuously at the tomb of Imam Ali Rida (a.k.a. Ali Reza) for forty days and nights. During his journey, he also stayed at the Panjgur valley of Makran, Baluchistan. The place later became known as Dasht-e-Shahbaz, where many Baluch tribesmen became his followers. Mughal Emperor Babur has also mentioned the place in his autobiography Tuzuk-e-Baburi.

    On his way from Baluchistan to Sindh, he also stayed in present day Karachi’s Manghopir area for muraqba (meditation), and it is said that Manghopir’s natural warm fountain is a miracle of Lal Shahbaz Qalandar. That warm fountain started to flow from beneath the hill, on which Lal Shahbaz sat for muraqba (meditation). After passing hundreds of years, that warm fountain is still flowing continuously and is said to have miraculous healing power especially for asthma patients.

    In Multan, Lal Shahbaz met Bahauddin Zachariah Multani of the Suhurwardiya order, Baba Farid Ganjshakar of Chishtiya order, and Makhdoom Jahanian Surkh Bukhari. The attachment was so cordial and spiritual that their friendship became legendary. They were known as Chahar Yar (Farsi= four friends). According to some historians, the four friends visited various parts of Sindh and Punjab, in present day Pakistan.

    Almost all the saints of Sindh including Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai, Makhdoom Bilawal, Sachal Sarmast and Qadir Bukhsh Bedal were devout followers of Lal Shahbaz Qalandar.

    The saint died in 1252 in Sehwan.

    Tehseen Awan 0300 5000918

  4. The Pakistan Muslim League was founded in 1962, as a successor to the previously disbanded Muslim League in Pakistan. Unlike the original PML which ended in 1958 when General Ayub Khan banned all political parties, each subsequent Muslim League was in some way propped by the military dictators of the time: Ayub Khan, General Zia-ul-Haq and General Pervez Musharraf. Every time the pro-establishment
    political leaders were put together, who splintered apart when the general’s blessings faded away.[1]

    Currently, Pakistan Muslim League refers to any of the these political parties in Pakistan:
    PML-N, the Nawaz Sharif group, ordinarily recognized as original Muslim League was named so after separartion of PML(Q). Formed as PML (Fida Mohammad Khan) in 1988 when it split from Junejo’s PML in 1988 after Zia’s demise. The new party had Fida Khan as its president and Nawaz Sharif as general secretary. PML-N represents the largest group within Muslim League.
    PML-Q, the Quaid-e-Azam group , formed by Mian Muhammad Azhar in 2001 at the behest of the establishment with other like-minded leaders of PMLN including Syeda Abida Hussain, Khurshid Mahmud Kasuri and Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain. Presently headed by Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain when he outmaneuvered Mian Azhar to become the president. Officially called Pakistan Muslim League, after the 2004 unification of many smaller PML factions (some of them listed below) and other regional parties.[2]

    PML-Zia, the Zia-ul-Haq Shaheed group, founded by Muhammad Ijaz-ul-Haq in 2002 after his differences with both Nawaz Sharif’s PML-N and Shujaat Hussain’s PML-Q. It merged with the Quaid-e-Azam group following general elections in 2002, but after Ijaz left the the party, it was revived once more in February 2010.
    PML-F, the Functional Muslim League or Pir Pagaro group, first formed in 1973 when Council and Convention Leagues merged (without Qayyum Muslim League, which was allied with PPP-led government) and elected Pir Pagaro as president. Later on, General Zia got all the Muslim Leagues together, but installed Muhammad Khan Junejo as PML president. Feeling uncomfortable, Pagaro left the party and made his own in 1985. Functional League as it was called merged with PMLQ in 2004 under the patronage of General Musharraf, but Pagaro separated again after a few months to form his own league.
    PML-J, the Muhammad Khan Junejo group. Officially formed in 1985 as Pakistan Muslim League when General Zia-ul-Haq’s government cobbled together many factions of PML and installed Junejo as its president. It was re-formed as PML-Junejo after Junejo’s death in 1993 by
    Hamid Nasir Chattha, Manzoor Wattoo, and Iqbal Ahmed Khan when Nawaz Sharif became president of his own league. Hamid Chattha became the president and Iqbal Ahmed Khan the general secretary. It merged with PML-Q in 2004.
    Awami Muslim League Pakistan, founded in 2008 by Sheikh Rashid Ahmad after differences with PML-Q.
    PML-Jinnah, the Jinnah group, founded in 1995 by Manzoor Wattoo after differences with Hamid Chattha. It merged with PML-Q in 2004. Plans to be revived.
    All Pakistan Muslim League (or APML), founded in 2010 by former Army chief and military dictator Pervez Musharraf and supporters breaking away from the PML-Q.[3]

    Historically, Pakistan Muslim League can also refer to any of the following political parties in Pakistan:[4]

    Muslim League (Pakistan), the Pakistani branch of the Muslim League, which was disbanded and replaced by the Pakistan Muslim League.
    Convention Muslim League, a political platform created by General Ayub Khan in 1962 when he became the President.
    Council Muslim League, a party created by political leaders who opposed General Ayub Khan.
    Muslim League (Qayyum), a party created by Khan Abdul Qayyum Khan when he split with the Council Muslim League to run for the 1970 general elections.
    Recently Pakistan Muslim League (PML-Q) made headlines when on 31 December 2007, armed men belonging to the party kidnapped the human rights lawyer, Asma Jahangirs daughters who were in company of some friends, at gun point and brought them to the PML-Q main election office. The girls were detained illegally, abused, severely beaten. Asma’s youngest daughter was then dragged off to a separate room by some of the gunmen. Asma Jahangir only barely managed to rescue her daughters and their friends and called the police for assistance. The girls had been out filing ripped and torn election posters in Lahore City in the aftermath of the assassination of Benezir Bhutto. The Police took the side of the gunmen, insisting that the girls hand over the tape, or else they would be kidnapped, raped and killed.

  5. Pakistan’s Establishment is a term used commonly by Pakistani analysts for the Military dominant oligarchy in Pakistan. This group of individuals, while not exclusively Military, are considered key decision makers in major policy decisions like Pakistan’s nuclear programme, the defence budget and the use of Intelligence Agencies in Pakistan.[1]

    One description of the Establishment has been by Stephen P. Cohen in his book the Idea of Pakistan.
    Cohen calls this establishment a “moderate oligarchy” and defines it as “an informal political system that [ties] together the senior ranks of the military, the civil service, key members of the judiciary, and other elites.” Membership in this oligarchy, Cohen contends, requires adherence to a common set of beliefs: that India must be countered at every turn; that nuclear weapons have endowed Pakistan with security and status; that the fight for Kashmir is unfinished business from the time of partition; that large-scale social reforms such as land redistribution are unacceptable; that the uneducated and illiterate masses deserve only contempt; that vociferous Muslim nationalism is desirable but true Islamism is not; and that Washington is to be despised but fully taken advantage of. Underlying these “core principles,” one might add, is a willingness to serve power at any cost. [2]

    Another description of it was written by Mushahid Hussain,in 2006 by Pakistani journalist and politician allegedly close to the establishment in the Pakistani English language paper The Friday Times. “This Establishment comprises anywhere from 500 to 1000 individuals, some related to each other through family or marriage, from amongst the military brass, the top bureaucracy, superior judiciary, intelligence outfits. Its wings are flanked by feudal lords, industrial magnates and media barons. ” [3]

    In addition to influencing policy and accused of manipulating elections, the establishment is considered to be responsible for the creation of a variety of political parties and alliances.[4] Secular and liberal groups in particular accuse it of helping in the formation of the Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal a conservative religious parties alliance.[5]

    General Zia-ul Haq also introduced the concept of strategic depth as part of the establishments politics. He coined this term in the context of politics and military strategy. After Afghanistan was invaded by the Soviets, he looked at Afghanistan as a source of political and military strategic depth for Pakistan. He saw Pakistan’s strength in a Pakistani dominated Islamic Afghanistan. [6]

    Establishment Leaders (Past and Present)

    Zia ul Haq
    Nawaz Sharif
    Brigadier Imtiaz
    Colonel Imam
    Humayun Akhtar Khan
    Ijaz ul Haq
    Hamid Gul
    Wasim Sajjad
    Farooq Leghari
    Ghulam Ishaq Khan
    Roedad Khan
    Mirza Aslam Beg
    Mohammad Mian Soomro
    Mushahid Hussain Syed

    See also

    Constitutional Coup
    Hyderabad tribunal
    Mehran bank scandal
    Operation Midnight Jackal
    Military-industrial complex
    Islami Jamhoori Ittehad
    Convention Muslim League
    Pakistan Muslim League (Q)
    Pakistan Muslim League (F)
    Deep state

  6. Mian Mohammad Nawaz Sharif
    میاں محمد نواز شریف

    Prime Minister of Pakistan
    In office
    17 February 1997 – 12 October 1999
    President Farooq Leghari
    Wasim Sajjad
    Preceded by Malik Meraj Khalid (Acting)
    Succeeded by Pervez Musharraf (Acting)
    In office
    26 May 1993 – 18 July 1993
    President Ghulam Ishaq Khan
    Preceded by Balakh Sher Mazari (Acting)
    Succeeded by Moeenuddin Ahmad Qureshi(Acting)
    In office
    6 November 1990 – 18 April 1993
    President Ghulam Ishaq Khan
    Preceded by Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi
    (Acting)
    Succeeded by Balakh Sher Mazari (Acting)

    Born 25 December 1949
    (age 60)
    Lahore, Pakistan
    Political party Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz
    Alma mater Government College University
    University of the Punjab
    Religion Sunni Islam

    Mian Mohammad Nawaz Sharif, (Punjabi, Urdu: میاں محمد نواز شریف) (born 25 December 1949 in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan) is also a Pakistani businessman. He was twice elected as the
    12th Prime Minister of Pakistan, serving two non-consecutive terms, the first from 1 November 1990 to 18 July 1993 and the second from 17 February 1997 to 12 October 1999. His party is the
    Pakistan Muslim League (N) (Nawaz group). He is best known internationally for ordering
    Pakistan’s 1998 nuclear tests in response to India’s nuclear tests,[1] and the abrupt end of his final term in a dramatic standoff.

  7. Mian Muhammad Shahbaz Sharif shib

    17th & 21st Chief Minister of Punjab
    In office
    31 March 2009 – Incumbent
    Preceded by Dost Muhammad Khosa
    Constituency Bhakkar
    In office
    8 June 2008 – Present
    In office
    20 February 1997 – 12 October 1999
    Preceded by Mian Shahbaz Sharif

    Born Lahore
    Citizenship Pakistani
    Political party Pakistan Muslim League (N)
    Spouse(s) Begum Nusrat Shahbaz
    Aaliya HoneyTehmina Durrani
    Residence Lahore
    Religion Islam

    Mian Muhammad Shahbaz Sharif, also known as Shahbaz Sharif (Punjabi, Urdu: میاں محمد شہاز شریف), is a well known Pakistani politician and currently President of Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz) (PML-N). He is the brother of Nawaz Sharif, former Prime Minister of Pakistan. He is the incumbent Chief Minister of Pakistan’s most populus province Punjab since 2008. Previously, he held this position from 1997 to 1999, when his government was over-turned along with all other provincial and federal governments by dictator Pervaiz Musharraf then army chief of Pakistan, in a pre-planned coup.

  8. First term Chief Minister of Punjab

    He was considered a strict and demanding administrator as the chief minister of Punjab. He received some criticism because he took charge of the office when his brother was the Prime Minister of Pakistan [citation needed] He was ousted along with his brother in the 1999 military coup, which brought Pervez Musharraf to power. He had been a famous chief minster due to his strict administration, workaholic nature and public welfare projects all over the Punjab province.He is know as khadama punjab these days.

    Exile

    Shahbaz Sharif lived in exile in London with his brother, the exiled former Prime Minister Mian Nawaz Sharif after coming from Saudi Arabia. He once tried coming back to Pakistan following a High Court decision that he was free to come back whenever he wanted. On May 11, 2004 his plane landed at Allama Iqbal International Airport Lahore but he was arrested and again deported to Saudi Arabia within a few hours.

    President of Pakistan Muslim League (N)

    Mian Shahbaz Sharif was elected President of PML (N) on 3 August 2002 while in exile in Saudi Arabia. He was re-elected President of PML(N) for a second term on 2 August 2006.
    Popular among educated, civil & armed services and the middle-class, he is thought of as a strong future candidate to become Prime Minister, of Pakistan.

    Return to Pakistan

    In August 2007, Supreme Court of Pakistan gave its verdict which allowed Nawaz Sharif and Shahbaz Sharif to return back to Pakistan.
    On September 7, 2007, judge Shabbir Hussain Chatha ordered police to arrest Shahbaz Sharif, brother of Nawaz Sharif and produce him before the court, after the hearing in Lahore. The court ruled that “Shahbaz Sharif should be arrested (at) whichever airport he lands at.” Nawaz Sharif
    too faces detention on the pair’s planned return from exile to Pakistan on September 10, 2007, to challenge President Pervez Musharraf’s 8-year military rule.[1]

    His brother Mian Shahbaz Sharif changed return plans at the last minute.[2][3]

    Sharif was not allowed to participate in the 2008 elections because of allegations against him. His son Hamza Sharif was supposed to run from a NA seat in Lahore but due to the death of a candidate the elections were postponed.

    Second term as Chief Minister

    On 8 June 2008, Shahbaz Sharif was elected as Chief Minister of Punjab, receiving 265 votes from the members of the 371-seat provincial assembly. He was the only candidate, and the Pakistan Muslim League-Q boycotted the vote. Speaking after his election, he called on Musharraf to resign.[4] He won a vote of confidence on 9 June, receiving 266 votes.[5]

    Mian Shahbaz Sharif after becoming Chief Minister of Punjab was welcomed by the public and media who were keen to see how he pursues his unfinished agenda of public welfare and reforms in education sector.
    His second term as Chief Minister lasted until 25 February 2009, when a three-member bench of the Supreme Court of Pakistan, headed by Justice Moosa K. Leghari, declared him ineligible to contest elections, took away his seat in the Punjab Assembly, and thereby removed him from office.[6] On 31 March 2009, a five-member larger bench of the Supreme Court granted stay order on an earlier decision of the apex court, in which Mian Nawaz Sharif and Shahbaz Sharif were disqualified from holding public office.[7] As a result, Shahbaz Sharif returned to office as Chief Minister. He is fighting against corruption in the society in general and government functionaries in particular. He seems to have vision; a mega plan to transform Lahore into a true High-Tech City in Pakistan as well as an important high tech center in the entire world. [8]

  9. Dost Muhammad Khosa
    دوست محمد کھوسہ

    Chief Minister of Punjab
    In office
    12 April 2008 – 8 June 2008
    Preceded by Shiekh Ejaz Nisar
    Succeeded by Shahbaz Sharif
    Constituency Dera Ghazi Khan

    Born October 22, 1973
    Citizenship Pakistani
    Political party Pakistan Muslim League (N)
    Residence Lahore
    Religion Sunni Islam

    Sardar Dost Muhammad Khosa (Urdu: دوست محمد کھوسہ ) (born October 22, 1973) is a
    Pakistani politician affiliated with centre-right Pakistan Muslim League (N).[1] He was elected as the Chief Minister of Pakistan’s most populous province, Punjab on 12 April, 2008. Dost Muhammad Khosa, who is son of former Punjab governor Sardar Zulfiqar Ali Khosa was born in
    Dera Ghazi Khan, Punjab. He won the general election 2008 from Punjab provincial seat 244 Dera Ghazi Khan 5.

  10. Pakistan Livestock overview

    History & Development of Poultry Industry in Pakistan

    Prior to 1963 the native breed “Desi” was mainly raised which produced a maximum of 73 eggs per year under local conditions. An improved breed “Lyallpur Silver Black” was evolved in 1965-66 in the department of Poultry Husbandry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. The layers of this breed are capable of producing 150 egg/year and gaining 1.4 kg weight in 12 weeks of age under favorable management and feeding conditions.

    Poultry in Pakistan was kept as backyard business for household needs. In early sixties the need of commercial poultry was felt which resulted in 1963, in the form of a national campaign to enhance the production of feed products in the country. Under this campaign the government announce a tax exemption policy on the income derived from poultry farming. Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) in collaboration with Shaver Poultry Breeding Farms of Canada started first commercial hatchery in Karachi. Simultaneously, a commercial poultry feed mill was started by Lever Brothers (Pvt), Pakistan Ltd., at Rahim Yar Khan, which was followed by other pioneers like Arbor Acres Ltd.

    Special emphasis was laid by the Government on development of poultry industry in the country during 1965-75. The Government made major policy decisions to provide all possible facilities to poultry industry in the annual development plans. The incentives provided to poultry farmers/poultry industry included.

    1. Tax exemption on income derived from poultry farming.

    2. Import of flock and incubators was permitted under free list.

    3. Allotment of state land on lease for poultry farming at very nominal rates.

    4. Established poultry research institutes at Karachi and Rawalpindi through Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations to facilitate research services specifically concerning disease control programmes.

    5. Two meatless days were announced to encourage poultry meat consumption.

    6. Subsidy on grains to form low cost quality ration, through UNDP-grains.

    7. Loan through ADBP for the construction, of poultry sheds.

    8. Established directorates of Poultry Production in Karachi and Punjab to provide extension services to the poultry farmers.

    9. Establishment of Federal Poultry Board to coordinate government and industry activities in the poultry business.

    The subsequent development of Pakistan’s Poultry Industry can be divided into four phases

    Phase 1: The Introductory Period 1965-1970.
    During this period the early poultry ventures, involving risks were supported by Government policies that exempted poultry production form national tax levies and permitted producers to import genetically improved breeding stocks and equipment such as incubators. A number of catalytic forces shaped the early development of the poultry industry.

    These forces included potential profits in the industry, availability of technologies and supportive government policies resulting form the perception of a protein deficiency in Pakistani diet. The government of Pakistan also established the Directorate of Poultry Production at Karachi, which provided extension services to the growing numbers of poultry farmers. The early development of the industry was also characterized by emerging problems including rising feed costs, disease outbreaks and consumer preferences for Desi birds.

    Phase 2: Institutional Development 1971-1975.
    As poultry production became a significant enterprise in the agricultural economy of Pakistan, the government strengthened institutions serving the new industry. The Federal Poultry Board was established to coordinate government and industry activities, in the layer and broiler business. Research services were offered through the Poultry Research Institute with the assistance of UNDP/FAO funds. The Directorate of Poultry Development was established in Punjab similar to that in Karachi. Poultry Producers struggled with the adverse effects of government programmes e.g. the ban on export of poultry products and the consequences of some major planning flaws such the establishment of poultry estates clustered together without adequate sanitation and health control. This phase is characterized by both the greatest success of the poultry industry and its greatest failure. A dramatic increase in poultry production resulted due to diverted investments form the nationalization of industries in other sectors. At the same time the clustering of production units led to large disease outbreaks and the lack of marketing facilities due to ban on export of poultry products limited industry growth.

    Phase 3: The Production Boom 1976-1980.
    The government of Sindh followed a policy to attract investment in poultry farming by offering estate land under ten year leases. At the same time, the nationalization of other industries contributing the entry of capital into poultry industry, particularly in the Punjab, resulted in the poultry production boom. Commercial egg production increased from 624 million eggs in 1976 to 1223 million eggs in 1980. Broiler production increased form 7.2 million birds to 17.4 million birds during the same period. The increase volume of production was forced through limited marketing channels. Serious financial setbacks to poultry farming in Pakistan culminated from discontinuation of poultry exports; disease problems; high relative prices of poultry feed; deteriorating feed quality; and limited supply of feed ingredients. Poultry farmers faced with financial problems and seeking remedial measures formed the Pakistan Poultry Association in 1979 on the advice of the Federal Poultry Board.

    Phase 4: Depression and Adjustment 1981-1990.
    Disease problems posed a serious threat to the sound development and consolidation of the industry. The large Karachi poultry estates began to close in 1984 and a number of poultry farms closed in other areas of Sindh. Production showed a decreased growth or even depression during early 1980 particularly of increases in the Punjab, Baluchistan and NWFP. However, in the later part of 1980’s starting form 1985 industry seemed to be readjusted with much rise in poultry number particularly in broilers. Faced with disease problems, lower productivity and numerous environmental and climatic difficulties, some of more successful farmers decided to produce under more modernized conditions and to establish their poultry farms in cooler, less polluted area of the country. Breeding farms in Karachi and Punjab thus relocated to Abbotabad, to the base of the Murree Hills and to the Valley of Quetta. The farmers also built houses with controlled environments for breeders, broilers and commercial layers.

    1991 to Now:
    In this period was a disaster due to diseases, in 1990 the farmers suffered a great loss due to Hydro pericardium syndrome specially the farmers of Broiler and Broiler Breeder Birds. In 1991-92 an other disease Gumboro attacked the chicks of broiler, layer and parent flock that resulted in great mortality. With the passage of time efforts to reduce the incidence of these diseases and prophylaxes regarding vaccination and bio-security were done, this also resulted in establishment of new medicine companies and the importation of vaccines form abroad started. At national level institutes like Poultry Research Institute, Veterinary Research Institute and Agriculture University Faisalabad also done efforts to reduce these diseases.

    In 1995 a new disease Avian Influenza appeared in Murree and Abbotabad and mortality in parent flock rose up to 80% due to this disease and set a challenge to the scientists at national level. Conferences at the diagnosis of this disease were conducted in which scientists discussed their point of views, after great loss measures were adopted that resulted in controlling the disease. In 1996 parent flock increased in number due to absence of planning that resulted in depression in the market and the price of chicks decreased several times its cost of production. This depression in Poultry market continued in 1997 as result of ban on serving of lunch in marriage parties that reduced the demand of poultry products in the market up to 40%. Slowly in 1998 it started improving and by increase in price of chick the companies got a great profit. 1999 again a syndrome like influenza broke that cause great loss in some areas while some areas were safe. Now still there are many threats to the poultry industry the manor of which is the marketing problems of chicks to finished products, a great planning is required in this regard. At this time it is supposed that big firms like Be Be Jan can be help full to reduce the instability of the market but it may be before time.
    VETWORLD animal health company (pvt)

  11. From Suzan and Williams/Appeal for Assistance.

    Dearest One,

    We are Suzan and Williams Alfarouk from Sierra Leone.We are writing you
    from Rep of Cote ‘Ivoire where we have been taking refuge after the brutal
    war and murder of our perants by the rebels during the renewed fighting in
    our country. Because of the war our late Father sold his shipping company
    and took us to a nearby country Cote d’Ivoire where he deposited US$18,
    300, 000.00 Million in his foreign account with one of the bank here in
    Cote d’Ivoire Pls, we got your profile from search site and due to the
    courrent political sutuation in Ivory Coast we are seeking for your
    assistance to transfer this Money and also relocate to your country to
    further our study and we are willing to offer you 15% of the total sum for
    your help. Please,Kindly contact us on this e-mail addresse
    (willimassuzan@cantv.net) for more details.

    Best Regard

    Suzan and Williams.

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