Celebrating Vaisakhi at Ram Thaman By Haroon Khalid

1st of Vaiaskh in the desi Bikrami calendar falls sometime around the 14th of April every year. This date also marks the beginning of the Vaisakhi festival, known as Baisakhi too, all across the Indian peninsula. The celebration of Vaisakhi commences the beginning of the cutting of wheat all over the country. Wheat being the most important stable in South Asia is the reason why this festival is so significant to farmers in both India and Pakistan. Having purely originated from seasonal changes, Vaisakhi has been given cultural and religious hues from the local communities. The Hindus in different regions of the country pray to their local deities during this time of year. For the Sikhs however, there is a different significance. In their culture it was on the 1st of Vaisakh that the tenth Sikh Guru finalized their religion. He gathered all his followers at Anandpur, India, where he gave them the famous 5 ks of Sikhism. He also ordered them to end their names with Singh. This is how Vaisakhi, a celebration of the harvest, became a religious festival for the Sikhs. Every year, Sikhs from all over the world, flock to their religious sanctuaries to commemorate this auspicious day. The Sikh celebrations in Pakistan which begin from Gurdwara Punja Sahib, Hassan Abdal, and then move to Amenabad, Gujranwala, are part of the annual event.

In its inception Vaisakhi represents the joy of a farmer. Irrespective of their religion, color and caste, farmers all over South Asia have celebrated this day for thousands of years. Naturally by becoming Muslims, the farmers didn’t cease being farmers, and hence continued celebrating this event along with other religious communities. Besides the melas at Sikh Gurdwaras, other important shrines of celebrations were Ram Thaman, Kasur District, and Sakhi Sarwar, DG Khan.

The ability of Vaisakhi to bring together people beyond their religious pales is the reason why even after so many years of Partition, and decades of puritanical propaganda the people of both of these localities still celebrate this event. Another village is Jaman, at the border; however the festivities there are much smaller in scale. It is reported that the mela of Vaisakhi at Ram Thaman (originally in Lahore district, now in Kasur) used to be of an immense magnitude. Special trains from Lahore, Amritsar, Ferozpur, and other areas used to come to Kalu Khara this time of year, where the temple of Ram Thaman is located. In the Intelligence Reports of Police, found in the archives of Lahore Secretariat, it is said that around 35,000 people were present at this mela in 1946, when it was celebrated for the last time, in its former grand scale.

Munawar bibi, an old woman in her 70s, living in one of the various houses constructed in the complex of the temple, told me that she had seen the festivities at its zenith. So many people used to invade her village at that time that they would stock their food and water supplies for 3 days, and then would lock their doors. There wouldn’t be any space for people to walk on the streets, she told me. People used to keep on coming to the festival from all over the country even after Partition. But slowly the festival lost its vitality. Now only a few hundred people come here every year now. Haji Gud Khan, an influential landlord of the village has started halting people from taking part in the Vaisakhi celebrations, she tells me. Whenever the number of devotees exceeds the tolerance threshold of this gentleman, he brings in the authorities to intervene, who of course do what they are told.

Despite a backlash against the ‘non-Islamic’ celebrations, I met one gentleman, who had come all the way from Pak Pattan, to attend the mela. Faisal told me that he had come to attend the festival of Baba Rehmat Shah. He had heard about it at Pak Pattan, but was rather disappointed to see the event, he heard so much about. He might not come next year.

I did not want to correct Faisal for calling the festival of Baba Ram Thaman, Baba Rehmat Shah’s. This is an oft-repeating phenomenon I have noticed in various cases. A celebration or a sanctuary, associated with a non-Muslim person, has been Muslimlized to retain its status as a revered.

Baba Ram Thaman was an elder cousin of the Guru Nanak. He is revered by Hindu Udasis, and Sikhs. He belonged to the neighboring village of Kalu Khara, however he settled outside of it, and when he died, a smadh (stupa) was built where he rested. Over time, this smadh became a huge complex. The entire structure is spread over an area of around 22 acres, with the adjacent pool as big as 8 acres. There was a concrete boundary wall, protecting it, and various magnificent gates leading into the temple. Now however most of these moats, gates, and walls have been lost to the encroaching population. Besides the two main buildings of the temple, one of which is the Smadh, and the other one a Hindu temple, all the remaining structures now house occupants, who have wrought changes to the original architecture to suit their needs. Inside these various compartments are remnants of glorious art work. Any keen observer of art history is advised to visit Ram Thaman as soon as possible, before even these relics are lost. This village is on the Kasur-Raiwind road, about 7 km from Raiwind and 20 from Kasur. It is next to the railway station of Raja Jang.

The Vaisakhi mela at Ram Thaman has found its way into the folk songs of Punjab; such is the significance of this festival in our cultural heritage. In Heer-Waris, when the writer is describing the scenario of Heer’s barat, he says: ‘Jevein log nigahein te raatan thaman dhol marde te rang lawande ne’. Thaman is Ram Thaman here. He is comparing the festivities at Heer’s Barat to those at the festival of Ram Thaman. Amongst other folk songs are: ‘Tumba wajta Thaman nu jawe, te rukhan wale dhaad wajti’ and ‘Jage wadiyan Thaman dein Kudiyan te Pind che Paachal ah gaya’.

It is really a pity that an event of such culture should be neglected this way. Vaisakhi festivals all over the country are slowly fading away. It is binding upon the Pakistan government to view the festival of Baisakhi beyond the narrow window of religion and see it as a cultural event, which marks the beginning of the harvest season. Vaisakhi should be celebrated at a State level, just like the way it is in India, and all religions, castes, and creeds should be encouraged to participate in it.

 

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9 responses to “Celebrating Vaisakhi at Ram Thaman By Haroon Khalid

  1. It was most interesting to read about the Vaishaki celebrations in Pakistan. I wish it would continue. If possible I will take the opportunity to attend next time I visit akistan. I have been to Pakistan twice after the partition of the country in 1947. Time was not enough to see all the places which I would have liked to see. God willing I will visit Pakistan again some time and see more of the country where I spent my early life.
    My best wishes to all on the Vaishaki .

  2. Sat Sri Akal Sir,

    Thanks for sharing your knowledge.

    Te jithon tak mera khyal ae, Punjab de culture te heritage di legacy diyan jo nishaaniyan ne oh zyadatar West Punjab ch hi ne. East Punjab ch te shayad hi kuj ae.
    Saadi te sirf aahi khwaish ae ki aes ton pehlan ki samay di maar ehna di tabahi da kaaran bane, saade siyasat daanan te saadi aawam nu akal aa jave te pyaar te aman de naal rehan lag paen. Jo ki bina kisey shaq ton saade saareyan lai laabdayak ae.

    Twada dhanwadi,
    Harsimran Singh Virk

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  4. In Focus
    Army Hajj Contingents
    Seats for Hajj – 2011 at own exp are available for allotment to desirous serving/retired Officers, Junior Commissioned Officers, Soldiers and Civilians of Pakistan Army.

    Conception of Pakistan
    Come 23rd March and we indulge in our favourite pastime. We carry out a national audit of our past doings and generally give poor marks to ourselves on all counts. Special Pakistan Day TV and radio talk shows and newspaper supplements lament in excruciating detail, how our journey as a nation has gown awry and how we have lost both our moral bearing and ideological moorings. After this collective chest beating, we go back to our mundane daily chores, till another 23rd March or 14th August us upon us and the annual ritual of finding faults with our selves at the national and individual level is repeated adnauseum. Pious statements and commitments are made and then there is silence and inaction.

    A Fateful Day
    Pakistan was not gifted to us on a golden platter. It was not an easy and simple task to attain a separate homeland for the Muslims of undivided India. The Muslims of United India had little or no say in important decision making policies of British India. 23rd March 1940 was indeed a very important day because that day the Lahore Resolution of Qarardad-e-Lahore was signed to pave the way for an independent Mulim state. The Qarardad-e-Pakistan was the formal political statement adopted by the Muslim League in its three-day session from 22-24 March 1940.

    Balochistan: One more step towards “National Integration”
    With regard to the recruitment in the Armed Forces, there have been adequate vacancies, but less number of Baloch youth preferred this profession, mainly because of illiteracy and ignorance. Resultantly, there has been less representation of the Baloch youth in the Armed Forces of Pakistan.

  5. 1971 War

    Introduction
    With 1971 commenced the most tragic year of our history. Failing to resolve a political problem by political means, a Martial Law regime, manipulated by some megalomaniac politicians, resorted to military action in East Pakistan on night 25/26 March. Widespread insurgency broke out. Personnel of two infantry divisions and Civil Armed Forces with weapons were airlifted in Pakistan International Airlines planes, over-flying about 5000 miles non stop via Sri Lanka in the first week of April 1971 – the longest operational air move by Pakistan Army. By May near normalcy had been restored, thanks to the fast reaction, dedication and cool courage of our soldiers, sailors and airmen operating in a hostile environment under adverse climatic and terrain conditions, without adequate logistics and medical support. India’s immoral covert armed intervention having failed, by October it had concentrated four times our strength in over 12 divisions (400,000) supported by five regiments of tanks, and about 50,000 activists trained and equipped by Indian Army. Indian Navy’s one aircraft carrier, eight destroyers/frigates, two submarines and three landing crafts, against our four gunboats, eight Chinese coasters and two landing craft supported them. Eleven Indian Air Force squadrons – 4 Hunter, 1 SU-7, 3 Gnat and 3 MiG 21 – from five airfields around East Pakistan faced our one valiant Number 14 squadron of F-86F Sabres based on a single airfield around Dhaka .

    On 21 November, Eid day, when our fatigued soldiers had been operating in the most hostile environment for almost ten months, including a month of fasting, the Indian army felt emboldened enough to launch a full scale invasion at over twenty fronts in the east, west and north of East Pakistan . Divisions attacked our brigade positions; brigades attacked our battalion, company and platoon positions, supported by their armour, artillery and lair force. When most of our defensive positions, rooted to the ground, could not be overrun, Indian forces after suffering heavy casualties resorted to outflanking moves. The aggressors could not capture, till the cease-fire; on 16 December, a single town except Jessore, which was not defended for strategic reasons. For the Pakistani soldiers this was their finest hour, fighting against heavy odds with their backs to the wall inflicting heavy casualties, bloodied but unbowed” when an Indian commander, through a messenger asked for our Jamalpur battalion to surrender, encircled by two brigades, the commanding officer, Lieutenant Colonel Sultan Ahmad, Sitara-i-Juraat of 31 Baloch replied in a message wrapped around a bullet which read, “I want to tell you that the fighting you have seen so far is very little; in fact the fighting has not even started. So let us stop negotiating and start the fight.” Similarly 4 Frontier Force under 205 Brigade (Brigadier Tajammul Malik) held out at Hilli for l19 days against 6 battalions, inflicting heavy casualties, till withdrawal on 11 December, after getting outflanked. Similar hard fought actions took place at Bahaduria and elsewhere by Punjab, Baloch, Frontier Force and Azad Kashmir units all arms and services, and Civil Armed Forces including West Pakistan Rangers and police units. 107 Brigades (Brigadier Mohammad Hayat, Sitara-i-Juraat) held at bay a division of 5 brigades and 2 armour regiments at Khulna inflicting heavy casualties till 17 December and ceased fighting only after repeated orders of our Eastern Command.

    On the West Pakistan front, on 3 December 1971 , India attacked with the main effort against Shakargarh sector with three infantry divisions supported by three armoured brigades against our 8 Division front, operating under our 1 Corps (Commander Lieutenant General Irshad Ahmad Khan). The attack was halted in the tracks, inflicting heavy casualties. 8 (Independent) Armoured Brigade (Brigadier Mohammad Ahmed, Sitara-i-Juraat) effectively blocked and destroyed enemy penetration our minefield and saved Zafarwal from being outflanked by enemy armour. In Jammu and Kashmir , Chhamb, Lahore , Kasur, Sulemanki and Rajasthan sectors, war was carried into Indian territory , with success at some points, not so successfully at others due to inadequate forces and air support. For the Pakistan Army, Navy and Air Force this conflict was their finest hour. Fighting against overwhelming odds in both wings of the country raged with full fury. Before our counter offensive could be launched in West Pakistan , India asked for cease-fire in the United Nations. The Ghazis and Shaheeds proved in their supreme hour of trial all the military virtues of Faith, Honour, Valour, Fortitude, Endurance, Loyalty, Group Cohesion and Unlimited Liability, and above all, the spirit of Jehad.

    On 4 December 1971 , the United States moved a draft resolution calling for cease-fire and withdrawal of Indian forces, which was vetoed by Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Thereafter, another six resolutions including one by China were introduced calling for cease-fire and withdrawal of forces, some of which were accepted by Pakistan. However, due to behind the scene political machinations by India and her allies their passage and implementation was stalled till Dhaka fell on 16 December 1971 and the cease-fire had been perfidiously converted to surrender.” I took a careful look at the documents and was aghast to see the heading – which read Instrument of ‘Surrender’……” writes Lieutenant General J.F.R.Jacob, Chief of Staff, Indian, Eastern Army. (Lieutenant General J.F.R.Jacob, “Surrender at Dacca : Birth of a Nation).

    Flawed national and operational strategy proved to; be disastrous for Pakistan , both politically and militarily. Power, national and operational strategy, the methodology of crisis and conflict management, and higher direction of war in which we had been found wanting in 1971

  6. The Punjab Regiment

    Introduction

    The name “Punjab” (pun’jab, pun-jab) means “land of five rivers” and derives from the Persian words ‘punj’ meaning five, and ‘ab’ meaning water. The rivers, tributaries of the Indus River, are the Jhelum, Chenab Ravi, Sutlej and Beas. The five rivers, now divided between India and Pakistan, merge to form the Panjnad, which joins the Indus. Beas River joins with the Sutlej near the Harike Barrage in Indian Punjab.

    Punjabis were considered martial race by Britshers and were thought to possess qualities like courage, loyalty, self-sufficiency, physical strength and resilience, orderliness and hard work, and fighting tenacity.

    The British recruited heavily from Punjabi Muslims for service in the colonial military. On the eve of World War II almost 34,000 Punjabi Muslims were in the army (29 per cent) and during World War-II over 380,000 joined (about 14% of the total). No other class came close to these figures. Almost 70 pre cent of the wartime Muslim recruitment was from what became Pakistan from the undivided Punjab. The three semi-arid districts of Punjab-Rawalpindi, Jhelum, Attock (Campbellpur) pre-dominated in supplying recruit volunteers in World War II.

    Quick Links
    Introduction

    History

    Gallantry Awards

    Other Distinctions

    The Regimental Hackle

    Gallery

    History

    The Punjab Regiment is the oldest, the largest and the most decorated Regiment of the Pakistan Army. The Regiment emerged in its present shape on 7 May 1956 by amalgamating the 1st, 14th 15th and 16th Punjab Regiment groups, each having six, five, four and five battalions respectively, all rich in traditions of their own. Four of our battalions have already celebrated their bicentenaries while some more are getting ready to do so in the near future.

    This historical composition gave the Regiment a solid foundation to build on. During the 49 years of its united existence, it multiplied manifold and fought two National Wars. During 1948, some battalions also fought in Kashmir, and others got the opportunity to see the War in 1965 and 1971. The Punjabi units acquitted themselves with great honour devotion & courage and earned immense laurels.

    Gallantry Awards
    The Regiment has the proud privilege of having produced soldiers like Captain Muhammad Sarwar Shaheed, Major Muhammad Tufail Shaheed, Major Raja Aziz Bhatti Shaheed and Lance Naik Muhammad Mehfooz Shaheed. These Shaheeds are recipients of the Highest Gallantry Award of the land, the “NISHAN -i- HAIDER”

    Capt Muhammad Sarwar
    Kashmir 26-27th Jul 1948

    Maj Muhammad Tufal
    East Pakistan 8th Aug 1958 Nishaan-e-Haider Maj Aziz Bhatti
    Lahore 12th Sep 1965

    L.nk Muhammad Mehfooz
    Lahore 18th Dec 1971

    Other Distinctions

    The Regiment has the unique distinction of winning the “CENTO NISHAN” Competition in Germany in 1975, the only time a non-European country won this competition during CENTO’s 15 years history.

    4 Punjab, 6 Punjab, 14 Punjab, 17 Punjab, 18 Punjab, 19 Punjab, 22 Punjab and 31 Punjab Battalion have served United Nations Peace Keeping Force.

    The Regiment has the unique distinction of producing two Commander-in-Chiefs of Army, Chief of Army Staff i.e Field Marshal Muhammad Ayub Khan, Npk, HJ, first Muslim Commander-in-Chief of the Pakistan Army and General Asif Nawaz, NI (M), S-Bt and Bar.

    The Regimental Hackle

    Through nearly two hundred years of exciting and arduous journey the battalions of the Punjab Regiment saw the birth, growth and fulfillment of the British rule. They took part in many wars that affected the destiny of millions and survived many changes of organization and destination.

    One thing above all a tradition of gallantry and loyalty remained a guiding light to the officers and men of the Regiment and shortly before partition as a token of recognition of the Regiment’s meritorious services and faithfulness and being senior in service of all the Corps and units of the old British Indian Army, the 1st Punjab Regiment Group was honoured by being granted a grass green feather hackle to be worn on the beret, secured by the Regimental badge. This hackle, much prized by all ranks, further cemented the bond between all 1st Punjabis.

    Later in February 1956, during the annual Commanding Officers Conference of the 1st Punjab Regiment Group held under FM Auchinleck and Major Geneneral Sher Ali, reorganization of the Punjab Regimental groups (1st Punjab Regiment, 14 Punjab Regiment, 15 Punjab Regiment and 16 Punjab Regiment) was finalized under instructions of General Headquarters. During the same conference, it was decided that personnel of all the Punjab Battalions would, in future, wear the hackle. The Pakistan Green Beret with the Regimental badge on a diamond-shaped Scarlet backing continues to be a distinctive feature of the Regimental head dress

    The Punjab Regiment

    Introduction

    The name “Punjab” (pun’jab, pun-jab) means “land of five rivers” and derives from the Persian words ‘punj’ meaning five, and ‘ab’ meaning water. The rivers, tributaries of the Indus River, are the Jhelum, Chenab Ravi, Sutlej and Beas. The five rivers, now divided between India and Pakistan, merge to form the Panjnad, which joins the Indus. Beas River joins with the Sutlej near the Harike Barrage in Indian Punjab.

    Punjabis were considered martial race by Britshers and were thought to possess qualities like courage, loyalty, self-sufficiency, physical strength and resilience, orderliness and hard work, and fighting tenacity.

    The British recruited heavily from Punjabi Muslims for service in the colonial military. On the eve of World War II almost 34,000 Punjabi Muslims were in the army (29 per cent) and during World War-II over 380,000 joined (about 14% of the total). No other class came close to these figures. Almost 70 pre cent of the wartime Muslim recruitment was from what became Pakistan from the undivided Punjab. The three semi-arid districts of Punjab-Rawalpindi, Jhelum, Attock (Campbellpur) pre-dominated in supplying recruit volunteers in World War II.

    Quick Links
    Introduction

    History

    Gallantry Awards

    Other Distinctions

    The Regimental Hackle

    Gallery

    History

    The Punjab Regiment is the oldest, the largest and the most decorated Regiment of the Pakistan Army. The Regiment emerged in its present shape on 7 May 1956 by amalgamating the 1st, 14th 15th and 16th Punjab Regiment groups, each having six, five, four and five battalions respectively, all rich in traditions of their own. Four of our battalions have already celebrated their bicentenaries while some more are getting ready to do so in the near future.

    This historical composition gave the Regiment a solid foundation to build on. During the 49 years of its united existence, it multiplied manifold and fought two National Wars. During 1948, some battalions also fought in Kashmir, and others got the opportunity to see the War in 1965 and 1971. The Punjabi units acquitted themselves with great honour devotion & courage and earned immense laurels.

    Gallantry Awards
    The Regiment has the proud privilege of having produced soldiers like Captain Muhammad Sarwar Shaheed, Major Muhammad Tufail Shaheed, Major Raja Aziz Bhatti Shaheed and Lance Naik Muhammad Mehfooz Shaheed. These Shaheeds are recipients of the Highest Gallantry Award of the land, the “NISHAN -i- HAIDER”

    Capt Muhammad Sarwar
    Kashmir 26-27th Jul 1948

    Maj Muhammad Tufal
    East Pakistan 8th Aug 1958 Nishaan-e-Haider Maj Aziz Bhatti
    Lahore 12th Sep 1965

    L.nk Muhammad Mehfooz
    Lahore 18th Dec 1971

    Other Distinctions

    The Regiment has the unique distinction of winning the “CENTO NISHAN” Competition in Germany in 1975, the only time a non-European country won this competition during CENTO’s 15 years history.

    4 Punjab, 6 Punjab, 14 Punjab, 17 Punjab, 18 Punjab, 19 Punjab, 22 Punjab and 31 Punjab Battalion have served United Nations Peace Keeping Force.

    The Regiment has the unique distinction of producing two Commander-in-Chiefs of Army, Chief of Army Staff i.e Field Marshal Muhammad Ayub Khan, Npk, HJ, first Muslim Commander-in-Chief of the Pakistan Army and General Asif Nawaz, NI (M), S-Bt and Bar.

    The Regimental Hackle

    Through nearly two hundred years of exciting and arduous journey the battalions of the Punjab Regiment saw the birth, growth and fulfillment of the British rule. They took part in many wars that affected the destiny of millions and survived many changes of organization and destination.

    One thing above all a tradition of gallantry and loyalty remained a guiding light to the officers and men of the Regiment and shortly before partition as a token of recognition of the Regiment’s meritorious services and faithfulness and being senior in service of all the Corps and units of the old British Indian Army, the 1st Punjab Regiment Group was honoured by being granted a grass green feather hackle to be worn on the beret, secured by the Regimental badge. This hackle, much prized by all ranks, further cemented the bond between all 1st Punjabis.

    Later in February 1956, during the annual Commanding Officers Conference of the 1st Punjab Regiment Group held under FM Auchinleck and Major Geneneral Sher Ali, reorganization of the Punjab Regimental groups (1st Punjab Regiment, 14 Punjab Regiment, 15 Punjab Regiment and 16 Punjab Regiment) was finalized under instructions of General Headquarters. During the same conference, it was decided that personnel of all the Punjab Battalions would, in future, wear the hackle. The Pakistan Green Beret with the Regimental badge on a diamond-shaped Scarlet backing continues to be a distinctive feature of the Regimental head dress

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